Saturday, April 09, 2011

Danish Sausage and Meat Cures - part 3

Boar's Head—(Glazed).—Select for this dish a perfect head with good ears—the head must be cut off full—(i.e.) with two or three joints of the neck bone left on; all bone must be carefully extracted, care being taken not to cut the outer veins. The head is now well washed in cold water to remove all blood, and put into spiced pickle for six days, after which it is again well washed and stuffed tightly with "pork sausage meat,"a piece of selected rind being stitched on back of head to keep in the stuffing. The head is then placed on a thin board and another piece placed alongside each cheek and tied in position to keep head in shape. The whole is now tied up in a cloth, and cooked gently, so as not to break the ears, but long enough to cook thoroughly. Allow to cool, taking care to place in position, so that it cools to a good shape, with ears erect When cool insert glass eyes, and, if available, a pair of tusks, then glaze.—see Glazing Recipé for Hams, Tongues, etc.

Boar's Head with Pistachios.— The procedure for making above is as for making brawn, but in this preparation the head and tongue must be chopped as nearly as possible in clean cut squares of say half inch square. Season with blanched pistachios and add one ounce to each 2 lbs. of chopped mixture.

Bologna Sausage—(American Recipe No. 1).—Use lean fresh meat—trimmings and cheek meat. Hearts can be added if they do not exceed a quarter of the whole bulk. Chop together very fine. While chopping add spices and seasoning, and from 25 to 30 ounces of salt to every 100 lbs. of meat. To every 100 lbs. of beef add 5 lbs. of pure fat, either fresh or salted pork. When the beef is nearly chopped add from 1 to 1 ½ lbs. of the best farina (potato flour) and sufficient water To suit. Mix thoroughly. Stuff into beef rounds, middles, or bungs. Tie the ends together into rings 24 inches long. Smoke with hickory wood and hickory sawdust if possible, as that gives a better colour and flavour. Remove when well coloured. Cook in boiling water. When the bologna is sufficiently cooked it will rise to the top. Pepper and coriander are the spices used for bolognas.

Bologna Sausage—(American Recipe No. 2).—Use equal parts of fresh beef and fresh pork. Add to this one-tenth of the amount of bacon. Chop together finely, adding seasonings to suit. To every 3 lbs. of meat use 1 oz. of salt. In adding potato flour, use 2 ozs. to 1 lb. of meat;
and instead of using water, take the broth used in cooking beef bologna or in cooking meats for bologna. Stuff into middles from ten to twelve inches long, and hang up to be smoked. Smoke from two to twelve hours, according to fire and taste. If properly made this bologna will keep for a fortnight in any ordinary weather. To every 100 lbs. Of meat use seasoning composed of 16 ounces finest white pepper, and 2 ounces ground corianders.

(American Recipe No. 3).
Beef 70 lbs.
Pork 40 lbs.

Chop together and add

Salt 27 ½ oz.
Ground White Pepper 7 oz.
Ground Corianer 2 oz.

Stuff into beef rounds, smoke for 48 hours, and they will keep at any time of (he year for at least two weeks. It requires only about ten minutes to cook them.

Bologna Sausage—(Italian).— Take 27 lbs. of fresh raw and lean pork, cut from the shoulder of the pig, 27 lbs. of cooked and pickled pig's neck, 27 lbs. of raw veal, cut from the leg, 5 lbs. of anchovy, all of which is to be finely chopped; then add 14 lbs. of raw fat pork cut into small cubes; season with 18 ounces salt, 11½ ounces ground white pepper, 4¼ ounces ground caper, 21 ounces pealed pistachio nuts cooked in wine. After carefully mixing the meat and spices, distribute amongst it six pickled and cooked tongues cut into slices. Then stuff into beef bung casings. Each sausage is entirely wrapped in a linen cloth and twine tied about this, after which they are cooked about one hour. Lay them out in a cool place for 24 hours. Either coloured or uncoloured fat may be poured over these sausages, when they may be further decorated with powdered sugar and small candies.

Bologna Sausage.
(English).—see Polony Sausage and German

Boracic Acid, now generally called boric acid, is a product found naturally in small quantities in several parts of the world. In Tuscany especially, certain hot geysers or lagoons yield a considerable amount of it, but this acid is dark in colour and contains a considerable amount of salts of ammonia and other impurities, which render the acid unfit for use in medicine or as a preservative. The pure white acid is now almost entirely produced from the native borates of lime found in North America and Asia Minor, and known respectively as "Colemanite"and "Boracite."Pure boric acid is found in commerce in thin pearly crystals or as a fine white powder. It has very little taste, is inodorous, and is given internally as a medicine in doses of fifteen grains. It dissolves in about twenty-six parts of cold water but is much more soluble in hot water. It has the property of destroying the germs which cause putrefaction in flesh, and on this account it is extensively used for dusting over wounds and in surgical work. It is employed largely in the form of boracic lint or cotton. Boracic acid is of  inestimable value for this same reason as an antiseptic and food products preservative, since by its use in minute quantities the germs which cause meat, milk, and other products to "turn,"or in other words to become sour, tainted or rancid, are destroyed, and it is therefore possible to convey butter, meat, hams, bacon, etc., from very distant places to market in a perfectly sweet and fresh state. Formerly this was done by employing excessive quantities of salt or saltpetre, and in former times butter, meat, etc., so treated had to be soaked or washed in water before it could be eaten. The use of an
excess of salt is particularly injurious to meat of all kinds, since it causes the juices to flow out, carrying with them large amounts of nutritious and valuable constituents with considerable loss in weight, and leaves the meat in a tough and leathery condition. The use of boric acid also destroys ptomaines, and considering the large number of cases of illness and death that have been noticed during the last few years from this cause, i.e., the consumption of unprotected food products, the remarks of the late distinguished physician Sir Benjemin Ward Richardson, may be noted. He said— "I think one must remember that poisons are actually formed from foods by their spontaneous decomposition, and that foods, which may be perfectly good and harmless at the time they were sold, might be allowed by the purchaser to remain lying in a warm place for such a time that spontaneous alterations might occur in them, and illness, or even death, might result from their consumption."

Brain Sausage—(American Recipe).—Take the brains of two calves, and after removing the skin, crush finely, mix with it 1 1/8 lbs. of lean and 1 1/8 lbs. of fat pork taken from a young pig. In chopping add four to six raw grated onions, 1¼ ounces of salt, and 1/2 ounce of ground white pepper. Stuff into beef round casings. Cook for five minutes in clear water, and cool quickly in cold water. They should then be kept in a cool place. In preparing them for the table, they should be fried in butter for a short time, and can be eaten with any kind of vegetables.

Braised Beef.—Braised beef is made from the briskets of beef which after being boned are immersed in the following pickle :—
55 lbs. salt.
5 lbs. saltpetre.
5 lbs. cane sugar.
5 lbs. Douglas's antiseptic.
The above is made up to twenty gallons with water and stirred until the whole is dissolved. Should the solution not be quite clear, it will be necessary to boil it and skim until it is clear. Keep the meat in this solution of pickle for six or seven days, according to the degree of saltness required. Of course if the meat is wanted very mild, then a shorter period would do, say two to three days. Take the meat now after it has been cured, and boil until it is quite soft. Remove it from the boiler and place in a braised beef press. The cover of the press is screwed down on the top of the salt meat and the whole is allowed to cool; when cooled the meat is removed and covered over with glaze. When cold, the whole is nicely trimmed and placed on a cutting board, in which there are two spikes for keeping the meat in position.

Braised Beef Press.—see Beef Press.

Braised Beef Stand.—see Beef Stand.

Brake for Paste, see Paste Rollers.

Brawn Canning Vat.—see Canning Vat

Brawn Cooling Rack —see Cooling Rack.

Brawn Making.—Clean fresh pig's heads well and bone them out. Commence with the cheeks first: take out the jaw bones, and then the tongues, and then the eye pieces. Get a small barrel and dust it with the following mixture :—
5 lbs. Salt.
¼ lb. Saltpetre.
½ lb. dry antiseptic.

Rub the tongues, more especially at the roots. Put the tongues into the barrel first, then the cheeks, after dusting them over with the mixture, and lay them well over one another rind to rind. Use the small pieces to fill in between. Between the layers dust freely the mixture, so that each portion of meat receives a covering. Keep the meat in the barrel for from twenty-four to thirty hours, then put it into jacketed pan or boiling copper, with just sufficient clear water to cover the meat. Boil for an hour at 212° Fahr., then remove on to a fine sieve and strain out the jelly.

Now cut the meat as nearly as possible into squares by means of a knife, or better, by means of the brawn cutting machine (see page 97). When this is done put your cut pieces into glass moulds or other suitable dishes, and fill up with the jelly previously strained off, and allow to cool.
Some prefer to keep some tongues separate, and cut them into long pieces. These they stick down into the meat before the jelly is added. Some put in whole tongues. Seasoning for this brawn should be added when the meat is being boiled, and should be made on the following plan:—
For every twenty heads use—
3 ounces white pepper.
½ ounce cayenne.
A thimbleful of essence of lemon.
a few whole cloves and some pepper corns throughout, give a nice flavour.—see also Collared Head.

Brawn.—An old fashioned recipe.—Brawn is the flesh of a boar soused or pickled, for which end the boar should be old, because the older he is the brawn will be more horny. It is the flitches only, without the ham or shoulder, that are made use of for this purpose. Brawn is prepared in the following manner; after the boar is killed, the flesh is to be sliced off the back bone and ribs, and afterwards sprinkled with salt; it must then be laid in a tray till the blood be drained from it; give it a little more salt, and let it be rolled up as hard as possible. The length of the collar of brawn should be as much as one side of the boar will bear, so that when rolled up it will be nine or ten inches in diameter. After being rolled up, it must be boiled in a copper till it is so tender that you can run a straw through it; then lay it aside till it is thoroughly cold, when it must be put into the following pickle :—to every gallon of water put a handful or two of salt, and the same quantity of wheat bran; boil them together, drain the brawn as clear as you can from the liquor, and when it is quite cold put the brawn into it.*

Brawn from Pig's Heads.—First clean pig's heads well, then bone out the heads fresh. Begin with the cheek first, take the jaw bone out, and then the tongue, and then the eye piece. Get a small barrel, dust the pig's cheeks as follows :—5 ounces salt, ¼ ounce saltpetre, ½ lb. antiseptic
powder; rub the tongue with it. Put some of this in the barrel first, and also rub the cheeks well with the mixture. Lay one on the top of the other rind to rind—the small pieces being laid on top well pressed down, and kept in barrel not less than twenty-four hours or thirty hours.
Then put in jacketed pan or copper—the jacketed pan is the best; add clean water sufficient to cover the heads. On no account wash the heads after being taken out of barrel. Boil about one hour or little more, according to size of heads. If you boil longer you spoil your collar head
and it won't keep. Now with brawn : after the heads are done, cut the cheeks up in small pieces. If you should get short of liquor, add some from stock, which should always be at hand. Keep the cheeks as warm as you can.
*From a "Treatise on the Breeding of Swine,: by Robert Henderson, 1814.

Bread and Butter Sausage.—
Take the sinews out of 22 lbs. of veal and 17½ lbs. of rather lean pork, and chop fine. Season with 19½ ozs. of salt,
1½ ozs. of saltpetre,
3 ozs. Ground pepper,
7/8 oz. ground cloves,
1/3 oz. ground ginger,
and work together to a moderately stiff paste. Then cut 4½ lbs. of raw bacon into small pieces; lay them for ten minutes in hot water, and afterwards let them drip and cool on a sieve; then work them into the paste, mixing all thoroughly. Fill into sheep or ox skins, pressing in very tightly. Hang the sausages up, and smoke them very fast. When red take down and boil slowly from twenty to thirty minutes. Lift out of the boiler and place on a table to cool.

Brunswick Cervelat Sausage (German Recipe).—
To make Brunswick Cervelat Sausage, the procedure is as follows:—

For every "block" of 50 lbs. take
28 lbs. lean pork.
10 lbs. beef (weighed after the sinews, etc, have been cleaned out)
12 lbs. bacon fat, cut into fine shreds.
2 lbs. finely ground salt.
3 oz. coarsely ground white pepper (free from dust).
1 oz. cleaned and pulverised saltpetre.
2½ oz. pure cane sugar.

First, mince the beef very fine, then add the pork, and mince the two together until the pork is all in pieces the size of peas, then add the pork fat, which must be mixed until it shows amongst the rest in pieces the size of lentils. Then add the spices and salt which should first be thoroughly mixed together, afterwards mincing the whole well together, being careful to clean the mincing knives well the while, as the spices are apt to cling to them. This time the mixture must be minced until the pork shows through the rest the size of pin heads. This can be done best by the use of the Alexander meat cutter with the smallest size square-holed plate. Fit a proper sized nozzle on filling machine; throw into the machine as much as it will hold, taking care there is no room for any air to get in afterwards, then press the mixture into small middle ox gut sausage skins. For hand filling a correspondingly wide Hornchen should be put into the skin, so that it is more easily filled, and stuffed as tight
as the skin will allow. To make the drying of the sausages sooner accomplished in winter, stand them upright in boilingwater for three seconds.

The sausages must now hang in a well-ventilated room, the temperature of which is from 58° to 6o° Fahr., until they begin to look somewhat red under the sausage skin, which usually takes from 14 to 18 days in dry weather. Now hang the sausages up in cold dry smoke in a high place, perhaps the third or fourth storey high, with air coming from above in an equal temperature of about 60° or 65° Fahr., and use for the purpose some dry oak and beach sawdust, mixing amongst this for the last and second last smoking a handful of juniper berries. One can also put in some maple and cedar sawdust, if possible (to be had where cigar-boxes are made), as these give the sausages a pleasant odour and a fine taste. Smoke the sausages until they become a fine cherry red colour, and keep them in a well-aired room until they are required for sale.

(1). For their manufacture good firm meat is required; choose pork of a dark red colour, without sinews; the beef must be bright red and from a well-grown, sound, healthy beast; both meats must be quite cool and well cleaned from every sinew; the bacon, which is to be used, must not be too fat, and should hang some days in the air, so that it may be better cut into small slices, and afterwards during the chopping may come into more equally cut dice.
(2). One requires particularly sharp mincing knives, so that the sausage is properly cut through and not squeezed or hacked, the latter giving the sausage a greasy appearance.
(3). If minced on a block it should one of firm white beech, for the special use of this sausage or others of the same sort, and should not be used for lungs or other boiled meat, as in these cases the liquor in which the meat has been boiled escapes from the meat in the chopping and gets into the block, and cannot be thoroughly removed, and consequently would flavour the raw meat disadvantageous.
(4). Above all, cleanliness is particularly necessary for the preparation, both for the taste and to make it keep.
(5). The skins used may be the middle gut of the ox, pig's fat end or calf's bladder, which must be cleaned from all fat and any small pieces adhering. Before using they must be carefully washed in warm water, and dried well inside and outside. They must then be cut a proper size and be tied up firmly. This must all be done the day before they are to be filled, and then they must be hung up. so that the next day they are perfectly dry.
(6). In frosty weather the sausages must be made in a moderately warm room in which, however, there must be no smell of cooking, and keep them when ready in a temperature of from 55° to 60° Fahr.
(7). In summer the following precautions must be taken:— Work in a cool room, and see particularly that the meat is perfectly cool. In order that this may be more surely and more quickly accomplished, especially with a heavy piece of pork, cut out all the bones as soon as the animal
is killed, and hang up the meat outside in a cool place. Add 5 ounces more salt and about 8 ounces dry antiseptic to the block of mixture. This should be added along with the spices. The manufacture should be accomplished as quickly as possible. The skins required should be steeped in (and quite covered with) cold water (into every half-gallon of which one ounce of dry antiseptic has been rubbed) for six hours, and then thoroughly dried (the inside of the skins must particularly have this antiseptic bath). There is then no chance of the goods spoiling afterwards.

Brose Meal.—Ground peas of special kind used in making puddings and sometimes for peas pudding.

Brown Paper. - see Wrapping Papers.