Saturday, April 09, 2011

Danish Sausage and Meat Cures - part 2

Black Puddings (English)-No. I.*
10 lbs. Midlothian groats (to be first boiled before mixing),
10 lbs. leaf lard or back fat,
1 ½ oz. black pudding (herb) spice,
1 ½ oz. black pepper,
1 gallon blood (bullocks' or pigs').
A handful of chopped onions is sometimes added.

Method of preparation.—Boil the groats for about forty minutes previous to using. Cut the leaf lard into pieces ½ inch square with fat-cutter. When the blood is being drawn from the bullock or pig, it should be stirred gently, and a wine-glassful of warm water added to every gallon along with 2 oz. of salt and 2 oz. food preservative. Mix all the ingredients well together, placing them in a black pudding filler, and fill into narrow bullock runners. Tie pieces about 18 inches long into lengths and bend them into circles, joining both ends. Boil at a very gentle temperature (180 Fahr.) for about twenty minutes, and then withdraw from the pot or boiler and allow to cool.

During the process of boiling add to the water either 1 oz. to every 10 gallons of black pudding dye or ½ lb. of logwood chips, in order to dye them perfectly black. The old-fashioned way to tie black puddings is by means of dried rushes or bass strings, allowing the ends of the rushes to project about 3 inches.

Black Puddings (English)—No. 2.— Prepare 1 gallon (10 lbs.) of finest Scotch groats by boiling for about forty minutes in a loose sack, leaving room for them to swell out; also prepare some finest leaf lard by cutting it into square pieces about \ inch or j| inch square with fat cutting machine.
Make up from following :—
10 lbs. Scotch groats,
10 lbs. leaf lard (cut in squares),
3 gallons blood (fresh),
15 oz. seasoning,
1 teaspoonful rubbed pennyroyal,
Add three or four chopped onions, if that flavour is desired.

Seasoning (make from following recipe) :—6 lbs. Salt, 5 lbs. Douglas's black pudding spice (herb), 5 lbs. Black pepper, 1 lb. pimento, 1 lb. coriander seed. Add to this some carraway seed, if that flavour is desired. (The proportion of the seasoning used is 5 oz. to the gallon of mixture.)

Method of preparation.—Mix the blood and other ingredients, then place them in vertical filling machine, fill the mixture into black pudding skins ("bullock runners"), seeing that the pieces of fat are equally distributed through-out. Tie into pieces, forming a circle 6 inches in diameter, and tie in circles. Boil gentlv at about 180° Fahr. for about half an-hour. Add to the water in the proportion of 1 oz. to every 20 gallons black pudding dye powder. Or put into water, previous to boiling, 1 lb. of logwood (finely ground) to every 15 gallons, and add a little powdered alum. When cooked, take out of the copper and tie with rushes with long ends at the joints. Before exposing for sale, rub them with a cloth on which has been dropped some salad oil. The filling machine most suitable for black pudding making is of the vertical type. The funnel to which the Black Pudding Filling Machine sausage casings are attached is near the top, and the approach to the funnel inside the filler is grooved in such a way as to prevent resistance or choking. The lid or cover is fixed on the top by a hinge, and is raised or lowered with great ease and rapidity. The thumb screw shown in drawing is simply unscrewed, and then the lid is free to be raised. The thumb screw also is attached by a pin to the side of the filler, so that there is no possibility of laying it aside. The plunger or piston acts vertically, and is raised slowly as required by turning the handle. When it is desired to lower it, the handle is pushed forward after raising a catch upon its shaft, and thus the machine is instantly thrown out of gear. To prevent the piston falling too rapidly, however, as it would do if not controlled, there is a regulating wheel which is attached to the piston rod and controls its fall if caught by the hand. The raising and lowering is carried out with great rapiditv. When the mixture is put into the black pudding filler, the lid is closed with the thumb screw, and bullock runners or other convenient casings are attached to the funnel and the work of filling commenced. The end of the runner or casing should first of all be tied so as to prevent any loss, and the whole length of runner or casing on the funnel is then rapidly filled and tied also at the latter end. The lengths are then tied into lengths of 18 inches (or any other convenient length) in two places so that they can be cut off without any loss, and these lengths are in turn tied in circles, the two cut ends being tied together.

*Note.—In these recipes groats are given as ihe farinaceous stuff to be added. Some makers, however, substitute pearl barley or whole rice for them. This must therefore be left lo the individual taste of the maker.

Black Puddings (Royal).—The humble black- pudding is not supposed to circulate extensively among the "upper ten,"yet, prepared in a refined way it is not unknown on the table of Royalty. This is how Francatelli prepares black puddings, and he was successively chef to the Earl of Chesterfield, Lord Kinnaird, Sir W. Massey Stanley, Bart., and Her late Majesty the Queen. We commend his recipes to those of our sausage-making friends who wish to go in for something récherché.

Black Puddings (French).—To one pint of pig's blood add rather more than half a pint of boiled double cream, three-quarters of a lb of the fat from the inside of a pig cut into rather small pieces, and four large onions chopped and fried in a little butter without becoming coloured; season with a little chopped bay leaf and thyme, nutmeg, pepper, and salt. Mix well together, and stuff the skins prepared perfectly clean for the purpose of the above, taking care to allow room for tying them into lengths of about six inches. Some water must be kept nearly at the boiling point and then removed from the fire down to the side and the puddings immersed, and allowed to remain in it until they become somewhat firm to the touch. They must not, however, be kept in the water longer than will suffice to set the preparation. The puddings, when taken out of the water, should be hung up in the larder to cool.

Black Puddings (English).—The chief difference from the foregoing in making black puddings, according to the English method, lies in the omission of the nutmeg, bay leaf, and thyme, and in the addition of boiled emden grits, or rice. In all other respects the same directions must be followed.

When about to dress the black puddings, they should be scored all Over to prevent them from bursting while being broiled, and when done are to be dished up with stripes of dry toast placed between each piece of pudding. The centre of the dish should be filled with mashed potatoes to keep them quite hot. As black puddings are liable to become slimy or mouldy if kept for a few days, it is desirable that measures should be taken to prevent these objectionable features. This can be done by dipping the puddings in a weak solution of dry antiseptic. This solution should contain half a pound of dry antiseptic to one gallon of water and should be boiled when prepared. Use the solution warm, and heat it every time it is used to about 120° F. When the puddings are cold and dry, they should be wiped and rubbed with a cloth which has been partially soaked in salad oil.

Block Sausage—(German Recipe).—
For each block of 25 lbs. Take
15 lbs. streaked bacon,
10 lbs. lean beef (removing the sinews).

First mince the beef fine, then add the pork, and mince till the latter is the size of beech-nuts Then add spices—
1 lb. coarse salt, 1 ¼ oz. white pepper, 1 oz. ground Indian cane-sugar, ½ oz. pulverised saltpetre, one small stick of garlic, finely grated, 1/3 oz. cardamom, two tablespoonfuls rum.
The mincing - knife, as in the preparation of Cervelat sausage, must be often cleaned, and the meat must be well mixed and mixed until it has an appearance like marble. The meat is not to be kneaded, but thrown deftly from hand to hand. Put the meat into good clean salted oxen skins, 12 inches in length, being careful to stuff them tight and to let no air in through the filler. After they are filled, let them hang up for several hours, then either lay them in a good pickle for some hours, or rub them well with fine salt and lay them in a bowl and leave them in the cellar for twelve hours. Then wash them carefully in cold water, and dry. Now hang them in an airy place of a temperature from 50° to 55° Fahr., and let them hang until the sausage begins to show itself red under the skin. Then smoke them in a cold smoke of beech and oak sawdust mixed with a few juniper berries.

The meat for this sausage should be taken from a well-grown animal, like the Cervelat sausage. Cleanliness is most necessary, as in the Cervelat sausage, and care must be taken that the skins are dry and clean.

Blodfod.—Made in the Danish Svineslagteries.
1½ part molasses.
1 part blood.
After mixing, it is dried and pressed into cakes for cattle feeding. It is recognised as a splendid fattening material.

Blood (dried).—see Dried Blood.

Blood Sausage -(American Recipe).— Use cheek meat, heart, lungs, and pork rinds in any quantity that is convenient.
Cut the pork rinds into small pieces, boil in clean water until three-fourths cooked, saving the broth and the rinds. Cut the balance of the meat together quite fine, and boil it slowly with the pork rinds and broth, allowing the broth to cover the meat. Remove the fat that rises to the surface, as the sausage will not look well if it is left. Cook until it is well done. Take one gallon of calves' or pigs' fresh blood immediately after killing. Stir it in a vessel 10 to 15 minutes until it will retain its fluid condition. Then pass through a fine sieve to break up any lumps. Mix 15 lbs. of the cooked meat as above with the one gallon of blood, and season tosuit. Pour through a funnel into beef middle casings, filling three-fourths full, the end being tied. Cut into convenient lengths for sale. Tie up the open end, and place the sausage in the broth and allow it to boil. The blood, in cooking, will expand and fill out the remaining part of the casing. Stir continually, or the blood will all collect in the lower side of the casing. When cooked, the sausage will rise to the top of the water and float, owing to the expansion of the air. Wherever air collects, pierce with a small fork or fat will fill these places. When of a good appearance, remove and wash in clean cold water and allow it to remain there until cold. The sausage can be improved by smoking cold over a low fire of shavings or sawdust. A hot fire will cause it to sweat, and spoil its appearance.

Blood Sausage—(North Germany).—Boil fat pork till not quite cooked and cut into small squares with cutting machine. To every 10 lbs., boil about 2 lbs. (well dried) selected rinds, and a calf's or pig's lungs, or instead of that a corresponding quantity of pork trimmings. When these are boiled tender, put the rinds and lungs or trimmings through the mincing machine (sausage cutting machine), scald the pork dice, and add enough well beaten pig's blood to make the whole moderately liquid, and then get the exact weight. (Reckon about 12 lbs. to the gallon). To every gallon add—
6 oz. salt.
1 oz. white pepper.
¼ oz.cloves.
¼ oz. marjoram.
Stir all well together and fill into casings ("bullocks. runners") with Douglas's vertical filler. Boil one to two hours until no blood oozes out on the sausages being pricked. On coming out of the pan, wash in warm water, and lay on a table to cool, and afterwards smoke for a few days in cold smoke, if such a flavour is desired. (To every 10 lbs. sausage meat, reckon about 1 ½ lbs. of blood.)

Blood Sausage—(French).—Take 1 lb. belly of pork, boil it with the same quantity of pork fat till tender, then cut the fat into small dice with fat cutting machine, and the lean meat into small pieces —not fine. Meanwhile have some onions, leeks, and eschalots steamed soft, added to
the above meat. The pork is not scalded. To every 10 lbs. of this sausage meat add —

2 lbs. pig's blood.
5 ozs. Salt.
½ oz. white pepper.
1/10 oz. Thyme,
1/10 oz. Mace.

Stir all well together and fill in narrow hog-casings (loosely), with Douglas's vertical filling machine, so making round narrow sausages. Boil till no more blood oozes out on being pricked with a needle. On taking out of pan, wash in warm water, and let them cool on a table. See also "Red Sausage"and "Lung Blood Sausage."