Brunswick Sardine and Liver Sausage. — To make 25 lbs.
Brunswick Sardine and Liver Sausage, take
8 lbs. pig's liver.
6 lbs. fresh bacon.
7 lbs. lean pork.
1 lb. good sardines.
4 lbs.seam (raw pig's fat).
Prepare in following manner :—
Cut the livers into small strips, wash them in cold water, and scald them well to make them white. Let them dry, then chop them. Add the lean pork (boiled, but not too tender), and chop very fine. Have the seam scalded, and add it and the bacon to the rest and chop all together. Now
add the sardines and the seasoning, and mix thoroughly.
Seasoning — 12 oz. Salt, 1¼ oz. fine white pepper, ½ oz. fine white ginger, ½oz. finely ground marjoram, 1/3oz. thyme.
Fill this into skins about 9 inches long, not too tight, and boil them from twenty-five to thirty minutes. Don't prick them. After they are boiled, put them at once into cold water, changing repeatedly until the sausages are cold and firm.
13 lbs. fat and lean pork.
4 oz. salt (finely powdered).
1 oz. saltpetre.
2 oz. food preservative (dry antiseptic).
1 oz. finest ground white pepper.
¾ oz. peppercorns (white).
½ oz. powdered lump cane sugar.
Method of Preparation —Cut the pork up fine in the mincing machine, then add the seasoning and other ingredients, excepting the peppercorns, which add last, before removing from the machine. Fill into wide pork skins and link into ordinary lengths of six to the pound. It is sometimes considered better to tie each division instead of linking. Hang them up for four or five days in a cold current of air, so that they become dry and shrunken. If any slackness appears in the skins, tie the loose skin tight up to the enclosed meat, and hang them up in a cool place in the smoke house for about a month. It is usual to eat these sausages raw on the Continent, but that will not commend itself to British tastes. They form an excellent dish when cooked gently.
Notes on Ingredients.—Powdered lump cane sugar is added to impart the sweetness required. If care be taken to get cane sugar, there is no danger of fermentation setting in.
Brushing Machine.—see Meat Brushing Machine.
Brussels Mosaic Sausage.—This sausage requires careful preparation, but it is well worth it. Not only is it very tasty, but it presents a very pretty appearance when cut up, and looks well in the shop window.
Take a leg of pork (either foreleg or hind-leg). Carefully remove all sinews, cut it up, and add to one-fourth part lean veal. Rub these well with a brine of saltpetre, salt, and Indian cane sugar, and let it stand for twenty-four hours in a stone jar, well pressed down and covered up, when it will have a fine red colour. For 15 lbs. of pork and 5 lbs. of veal, add 12 oz. Salt, ½ oz. saltpetre, 1 oz cane sugar. After taking out of the jar, mince it fine, say to the size of lentils, adding the spices during the mincing. These are, 1 oz. white pepper, 1/3 oz. mace, 1/3 oz. Ginger, 1/6 oz. cardamoms.
Now, put them into skins measuring about 6 inches in thickness and 7 or 8 inches in length. Fill them three-quarters full. To make the mosaic work now, cut up a fine red ox tongue in long four-cornered pieces, each wrapped round neatly with a piece of raw bacon fat —just a shred;
also some fine blood sausage, Frankfort little sausage, or thin fine liver sausage. Then set them into the large sausage amongst the meat at equal distances, covering these other sausages also with the thin wrapper of bacon. Before setting them in, take a wet stick which is slightly thicker than the pieces for inlaying. Push this stick into the sausage, and then slip in the mosaic. If this were not done, the bacon would be pulled away from the pieces of meat it is wrapped round. When all the pieces have been carefully set in, tie up the sausages and hang them for an hour to
smoke gently in a room about 64"Fahr. Then put them into a pot and let them simmer one and three-quarter hours. Both while smoking and cooking, and afterwards, stand the sausage straight, -so that the inlaying may not be pushed off the straight. Then smoke them again lightly with sawdust to which some juniper berries have been added.
Calf's Roll with Tongue.—Take out of a calf's breast all the ribs and bones, leaving the meat in one piece. Lay it in brine for two days, then take it out, dry with a cloth, then sew it up lengthwise, making one end into a point. Leave the other end open to be filled with the following mixture- chop some veal and fat pork very fine—say two of veal to one of pork. Season to taste with salt, pepper, and some ground ginger,
and two or three very finely grated eschalots. Cut some salted and boiled pig's tongue into large dice, mix this through the chopped veal and pork thoroughly, then stuff the breast with this, making it very tight. Sew up the opening and roll up in a cloth, fastening it at both ends, and tie a string round it. Put into a pot and boil for an hour. After taking it out lay under a heavy weight cold, when the weight may be removed and taken off.
Calves' Ham.—see Ham.
Cambridge Sausage —
12 lbs. lean pork.
6 lbs. fat pork or pure fat.
3 lbs. scalded rice.
2 lbs. sausage meal.
2 ozs. food preservative (dry antiseptic).
10 ozs. seasoning.
9 lbs. salt.
6 ozs. white pepper.
½ lbs. rubbed sage.
Camwood or Barwood.— Formerly much used for dyeing the skins of poloney sausages a scarlet colour, but now largely superseded by the brighter aniline dyes. Camwood is sold as a powder or sort of sawdust, and all that is necessary for dyeing the sausage is to place a little of it in the boiling water, the quantity being proportioned to the depth of colour required. Camwood is a native of Angola, and its scientific name is Bahia Mtida. It belongs to the family of the Leguminosie.
Cardamoms.—The capsules of a species of perennial plant much used in confectionery and for culinary flavouring. The plant is an abundant grower in the moist shady mountain forests of the Malabar Coast, where it is largely cultivated on small clearings. It is also grown in Ceylon and Java, and attains a height of from eight to ten feet. The three-celled capsules contain numerous wrinkled seeds which give an aromatic pungent flavour, and forms a spice a little weaker than pepper. Cardamoms are a favourite condiment in Asia and in North Germany. In Russia and Scandinavia they are used in nearly every household to flavour pastry, etc.
Casings.—A great deal could be written about casings, and the ins and outs of the trade. In the hands of reputable dealers, the business is all right, but otherwise it is open to fraud. If goods are well cleaned, from good stock, and cured with the proper amount of salt, they are generally worth the money that is asked for them, but when you come to take these same casings, repack and mix them with inferior goods, over-salt and over-weight them, you have casings that can be sold at cheap prices and show a better profit to the dealer than the right article. Casings can now be kept safely with a mild salting. Sheep casings are usually sold by the bunch or gallon of four bunches. Pig casings are usually sold by the lb.
'Sheep Casings,""Pig Casings,""Bungs,"'Guts,""Runners,"and "Weasands."
Cassia or Cassia Lignea is the bark of the cassia tree, and is known in Europe as Chinese cinnamon. Cassia trees grow to a height of from fifty to sixty feet, and the bark is treated much in the same way as cinnamon. It is stripped off by running a knife along the branch on both sides, and then gradually loosening it. It is then allowed to lie for about twenty-fours, during which time it undergoes a kind of fermentation, and the epidermis is easily scraped off. The bark afterwards is dried, and assumes the quilted shape in which it is packed for export. Cassia Lignea is largely grown in China, India, and in fact in all the warm countries from India eastward, and is also found in the Phillipines and other places.
Cayenne.—Cayenne pepper consists of the dried fruit pods of one or two species of the capsicum plant. The pods are pulverised into a granular powder, and as a condiment it well upholds its generic botanical name. Capsicum is derived from "kapto,"to bite. The plants are natives of South America, but are also cultivated in the East and West Indies, Western Africa, Zanzibar, and Natal. Cayenne is a splendid stimulant to the stomach, and possesses great attractions to those who live in warm countries. A few of these shrubby plants may be often found in the ordinary tropical garden to supply the daily wants of the table; the chillies or contents of the capsicum pods being gathered and eaten just before becoming fully ripe. Red pepper is a common name for cayenne, while the French call it by several names, "priment," "poivrons," "pevrots,"and "corail of the gardens."The Spanish name for it is "agi." There is an enormous consumption of chillies or cayenne in India, where it forms an important ingredient in curries and chutneys, but there it is ground into a paste between two stones, with a little mustard, lard, oil, ginger, and salt. It is the only seasoning used by the millions of poor in the East to flavour their otherwise insipid rice.
Chitterlings. -Chitterlings are made of the intestines—small, large, and stomach—the secret of making good sweet chitterlings is to see that they are handled without delay after being taken from the pig—if left without being cleaned for any length of time, they will be dark and unsatisfactory.
The proceedure is to place the intestines, as taken from the carcase, on a clean bench, trim off the caul fat, cut off the stomach. Slit open stomach on the concave side, turn inside out and empty of contents, well rinse, and place in tub of clean cold water, then find end of small intestine, and run off from fat, the large intestine is next separated, taking care not to break the gut in the operation. The intestines are now stripped in the usual manner of all mucus, etc., and placed in a tub of cold water, after which they are ready for turning inside out. The tool required for turning is a round slick about half-inch in diameter, and about eighteen inches long, and rounded at the ends. The method
of turning is to take up one end of the intestine, place across end of stick, push inside intestine, and with a quick motion of the hand pull all the intestine over the stick. When second end of intestine is reached, the whole will be found to be turned inside out. In this position it is pulled off
stick, this .vill be found by a little practice much easier to perform than describe. Large and small intestines are similarly turned. They are now well rinsed and placed in tub with stomach. The whole should now be well stirred round with a good stiff broom in several changes of clean
cold water, until they are quite clean and free from all dirt and objectionable matter. The small intestine is now plaited up, and the whole placed in copper and pan boiler, with a little salt and antiseptic added to the water. When sufficiently cooked they are withdrawn and placed in tub of
clean cold water till cool, not saturated. When they are taken out and drained, they are ready for use.
Choppers.—The use of choppers is so obvious that any special description is unnecessary. There are a great variety of choppers, depending largely on different districts, but the general designs are as illustrated on next page.
Cinnamon.—The cinnamon of commerce is the bark of the cinnamon tree, which is a native of Ceylon. Good cinnamon should be fine, thin, brittle, and of a yellowish brown colour, with a sweet aromatic taste. The finest qualities should not be thicker than brown paper. In its natural state the tree grows to a height of from twenty to thirty feet, with a trunk varying from twelve to eighteen inches in diameter—the external bark being thick, rough, and of ash colour, while the inner bark is reddish. In cultivation the trees are usually kept at heights, not exceeding about ten feet, as it is from the young wood and the fresh branches that the best quality comes. The bark is stripped off by running a knife along the branches on both sides and then gradually loosening it. It is then placed in a cool place, and after undergoing a kind of fermentation, which allows the epidermis to be easily scraped off, it is laid out in the sun to get thoroughly dried, when it assumes the quil-like appearance. The process of harvesting is carried on twice a year—in June or July, and again in November or December. Cinnamon is a stimulant and a great help to digestion, and has always been held in high esteem. Both cinnamon and cassia are mentioned as precious odoriferous substances. The bark was an article of export from India in the most remote times, and long before it came into use among the masters of the ancient world.
Diversities in quality seem to arise largely from the care and skill displayed in preparing it, and of course the age of the plant, and the soil and temperature of the country, have their share in making prime quality. The trees to thrive well, should be grown in a silicious soil with plenty of
vegetable mould mixed into it.
Circular Balances.—see Weighing Machines.
Cleavers.—These are large sized choppers used for cutting carcases in two, and are made sometimes with iron handles Fig. I. or with wooden handles as Fig. II.
Fig. ll.—Wooden Handled Cleaver.
The wooden handled cleavers are most in demand as they are supposed to give a better grip for the hands. Cleavers vary in weight from about 4 lbs. up to about 10 lbs., although the weight for an ordinary man's use is about 7 lbs.
"Climax" Tickets.—These tickets can be had in a large variety of shape, colour, and design. They are patented in the United Kingdom. They stand a lot of tear and wear, and can be washed with im-punity. Briefly, they are made of lithographed tins, turned over at the edges, and have one or two spikes according to size for sticking into the meat. They are certainly very attractive.
Clothing.—There are some well recognised designs in clothing for the meat and provision trades, and it is hardly necessary to do more than give illustrations of some of the most popular designs. Serge, jean homespun, drabette, duck, bluette, drill, etc. represent the materials from which this class of clothing is made. It is essential that the cloth should be a washing material and that the dyes should be fast.—see page 136.
Clotted Cream. -
This product is mainly produced in the counties of Devon and Cornwall under the style of Devonshire Cream or Cornish Cream. The taste is an acquired one by most people, and to many who have only heard of cream under these names the first acquaintance is often disappointing. There are immense quantities used however, and the preparation is pretty much the same in both counties. On the small scale milk is left to stand for about 12 hours in shallow pans, during which time the cream or fat globules partially rise to the surface. After that time the pans are placed on slow fires and the milk gently heated to about 180". During this heating all the living ferments are destroying, and the cream combined with the coagulated albumen rises to the surface. After heating, the shallow pans are cooled in running water and the cream separated off. On the large scale steam is used as the heater and a refrigerator as the cooling appliance. The illustration shows a complete steam plant.
Refrigeration may be applied by circulating brine round the shallow pans or simply placing them in a cold room at 38° to cool.
Cloves.—The dried flower-buds of the clove tree. This elegant tree grows spontaneously in the Moluccas but has been cultivated in the Mauritius and Bourbon; French Guiana and the West Indies, Zanzibar, Pemba, Amboyna, Java, Brazil, and other places also produce cloves in varying quantities and qualities. The smaller Amboyna cloves are the best quality, possessing as they do the essential, strong, acrid, aromatic flavour. Zanzibar cloves are, so far as quantity is concerned, the leading line in the English market. The produce of one tree may be taken at an
average of about 15 lbs., although in some cases 20 lbs. is a common figure. The harvesting is done in November and December and the drying process is accomplished by smoking them on hurdles covered with matting near a slow wood fire to make them take on the brown colour, then they are exposed to the sun to polish them off.
Coblenz Sausages.—These are favourites, small and cheap. Like the Vienna sausages both veal and pork are used, and it is left to the choice of the maker how much of either to put in, the cheaper one at the time usually being put in.
Say 10 lbs. pork, 10 lbs. Veal.
Let them lie for some days in a salt pickle of 12 oz. Salt, ½ oz. saltpetre. First chop the veal very fine, then add the pork and chop all together, it not being necessary for the latter to be so fine. Add 1 oz. white pepper, 1/3 oz. fine mace, 1/3 oz. fine white ginger, 1/3 oz. peppermint, three sticks eschalots, two sticks garlic, and mix well through the meat. Mince till the fat shows through the rest like pinheads; then work in as much water as the meat will take, making it very stiff, and then put in 4 lbs. of fresh meat, ready prepared, and work all together for a quarter of an
hour. Fill into narrow pig skins, not too tight, making six sausages to the pound. Let them hang on sticks outside for some hours to dry in summer; in winter, in a warm room. Then smoke with oak, beech, and a little pine sawdust—temperature 100. Fahr. Let them hang until they
are a beautiful yellowish-red colour, which will take about three-quarters of an hour. Small smoking-rooms are best for this purpose. Let the sausages simmer six to eight minutes in water before using. A splendid restaurant sausage.
Cochineal.—An insect common in the Canary Islands. The insect is about the size of a small pea and exists by attaching itself to the leaves of the tig tree from which it extracts the juice. The black grain cochineal produces the carmine colour while the silver grain makes lighter tints. The Colours produced are of a rich beautiful tint and are much prized for culinary purposes.
Coriander Seed. — (Grows in the South of Europe and the Eastern Countries of England. It is the fruit of an annual plant, and when dried has a peculiar aromatic flavour.
Corn Beef Pickle.—To every 4 gallons of water allow 2 lbs. brown sugar and 6 lbs. salt; boil about twenty minutes, taking off the scum; the next day turn it on the meat packed in the pickling tub, pour off this brine; boil and steam every two months, adding 3 ozs. brown sugar, and
1 lb. common salt. It will keep good a year. Sprinkle the meat with salt before turning the pickle over it. Let it entirely cover the meat, add 4 ozs. saltpetre. Canvas lids are excellent for covering, as they admit the air and exclude flies. Mutton and beef may be kept sweet several weeks by simply rubbing well with dry salt and closely covering. Turn the pieces whenever the vessel is uncovered.
Corn Beef.—To each gallon of cold water put 1 quart of rock salt, 1 oz. saltpetre, 4 ozs. brown sugar (it need not be boiled); as long as any salt remains undissolved, the meat will be sweet. If any scum should rise scald and skim well, adding more salt, saltpetre, and sugar; as you put each piece of meat into the brine, rub it over with salt. If the weather is hot, gash the meat to the bone and put in salt. Place a flat stone or some weight on the meat to keep it under the brine.
Corned Beef. — (American Recipe).—Make a brine strong enough to carry a potato about half out. To the proportion of half a barrel add ½lb. Saltpetre; if pure, you do not need as much. About ten days will cure it; you can tell from the amount of blood in the brine. When cured, change the brine and put in a clean, weak brine to keep it. Corned beef when cooked, the bones removed and pressed in corn beef pans can be sliced and retailed at a good price and be far superior to the corned beef that is sold in ordinary tins.
Corned Beef.—To 100 lbs. beef use 9 lbs salt, 3 ozs. saltpetre, 2 lbs. brown sugar or molasses, 4 gall, water. Boil all together, then skim, and it is ready for use. If to be kept long, add 2 lbs. salt after two weeks in brine.
Corned Beef—(American Recipe).—
100 lbs. beef.
3 qts. ground rock salt.
4 lbs. sugar.
4 ozs. saltpetre.
Mix well. Rub each piece of meat with the mixture, pack close and press hard. Beef prepared in this manner makes its own brine, and will be fit for use in three weeks, and will keep the year round by re-packing and boiling the brine in July.
Corned Beef.—(English Method).—Dissolve 112 lbs. salt in 25 galls. water. Skim well to remove scum, and test for strength, which reduce by diluting with water till 75° is registered on salinometer, then add 1½ lbs. Saltpetre, 1½ lbs. Douglas's antiseptic, 6 lbs. moist sugar, 1½ lb. Black pepper shotts, [whole peppercorns-SI] ½ lb. jamacia pepper shotts, [whole Allspice berries -SI]; ¼ lb. Coriander seeds. Briskets and flat ribs should be immersed in this pickle 14 days, rumps, 21 days, and rounds, 21 to 28 days according to size. This pickle turns out choice flavoured meats. Boil, skim and let it stand till cold. (Dissolve the saltpetre and add to the pickle when cold.) Pack the meat and pour the pickle over it when cold.
Cornish Hogs' Pudding.
recipe for making these :—
20 lbs. pork.
6 lbs. bread.
2 oz. pepper (white).
6 ozs. Salt.
½ ozs. thyme (rubbed)
½ ozs. Parsley
¼ ozs. Nutmeg.
¼ ozs. antiseptic.
For larger or smaller choppings, the proportions above to be increased.or decreased, on basis given. The pork used should be in the proportion of 2 lbs. lean to 1 lb. of fat, chopped fine, and filled into beef middle guts, tied up in sizes about i£ lbs. to 2 lbs. each. Cooked for forty-five
minutes at temperature 170° F.
Cornish or Devonshire Hogs' Puddings.
16 lbs. lean pork.
6 lbs. fat pork,
2 lbs. sausage meal
3 lbs. scalded rice or bread
1 lbs. corn flour.
1 lbs. water.
12 oz. seasoning (as below).
Add 4 eggs when chopping.
6 lbs. white peper (No. 2 super).
9 lbs. salt.
1 oz. Cayenne.
½ oz. Mace.
½ oz. rubbed thyme.
Method of Preparation.—The whole mixture is chopped finely and filled out in wide pig's casings, or fat ends, or bullock's middle casings. Simmer for half-an-hour in water at 180° F., then plunge into cold water, and allow it to run over them for twenty minutes or so—until they are quite cold. For the purpose of handling them, it is advisable to have either a wire basket or a fish cooker, so that they can be lifted out of copper and dropped into cold water instantly without risk of breaking. The colour ought to be pale and almost white.