Friday, June 26, 2015

TABLE FOR SIMPLE SYRUP CONCENTRATION Including Specific Gravity and Baume degrees,


Practical Druggist and Pharmaceutical Review of Reviews
(page ~35-40)


The ambition of every young man who works behind the soda fountain is to become the syrup maker and prepare the delicious sweet things that the people like, writes E. F. White in the International Confectioner. In these days of trade journals, which disseminate knowledge along all business lines, the preparation of fountain syrups is not the mystery it was twenty years ago, when the man who made the syrups for the fountain locked himself in room while he cooked the chocolate syrup, so that no one might find out how he did it. This man would not show or teach how he prepared anything, in fact, he often held his position simply because his employer was afraid to let him go, fearing that he could not find another who could do so.

Now, after years of education, and with the improved facilities for the preparation of syrups and the information which can be secured, it is astonishing that there are so very few really good syrup makers. There are many who can prepare some good syrups, but that is simply because they have good materials and directions there are great many gallons of syrups made every day that are very poor, of which syrup makers of twenty years ago would have been ashamed.

The quality of the syrups used must depend upon the prices which you charge for your drinks, etc. When speaking of quality do not confound it with purity. All fountain syrups must be pure, but there is difference in pure things. To illustrate what mean, suppose we go to the fruit market during the strawberry season. Here we find berries selling at prices ranging, at wholesale, from 7 to 15 cents. Let us look at two imaginary crates. Here is one the berries are of medium size, rich deep red color, very juicy and of strong aroma. Here is one: the berries are as large or larger, they are just as ripe, they are nice and sweet, but not very juicy; they are light and of brighter color, while the aroma is mild.

If anything, the grocer for fancy trade will pay more for the latter berry; it is the table berry, and these berries are just as pure as the other. Just as ripe, but the quality of the syrup made from the first will be twice as good as that made from the second. Thus you see that the good syrup maker must have knowledge of the fruits from which he is to prepare his syrups.

Who would say that California orange was any better than Florida orange? in fact, many people prefer the latter for eating purposes those who know about syrup prefer the California orange, as it is much superior to the other in quality. Quality in this case depends upon the power of the syrup to impart desired flavor. The quality of the syrup also depends in no small degree upon the way in which the materials are handled.


When soda fountains are situated in confectionery store, etc., it may be necessity to have small room partitioned off for the manufacture of syrups, but as the materials used in the preparation of candy are of similar nature, there is really no need for special room, although it would be some advantage. When syrups are made in the candy room few shelves should be set aside in the coolest part and devoted exclusively to soda fountain supplies.

If this is a warm room, it will be found best to keep fruits, concentrated syrups and finished syrups in another place, where it is cool, or in the refrigerator or ice room.

It will also be good plan to have few measures, graduates, etc., which are kept especially for use in the manufacture of syrup, because most syrups are so delicate that it does not take much to impart foreign flavor.


It is impossible to over-estimate the value of cleanliness in the preparation of fountain syrups. Every utensil, every container must be thoroughly cleansed before it is used. good roomy sink with plenty of hot water handy, a roomy work bench is also desirable. The little cooking that is required can be done on the candy stove.


It is not necessary to go to great expense for containers. Gallon stone jugs for syrups and half-gallon jars for crushed fruits will answer. For chocolate syrup prefer two-gallon milk can, because the wide mouth makes it easier to handle. Keeping syrups in gallon containers means that you can empty the contents each time. Have as many jugs for each kind of syrup as you are likely to use in day or two. For some syrups you may need four or five jugs, while for others one will answer. Buy some good corks and fasten one to the handle of each with strong cord, so that they will not be lost. Put tag on each, then always put the same flavored syrup in the same jug.

One of the best ways to take care of syrups, is to make them often. Syrups made from fresh fruits without cooking lose their flavor very quickly, or at least the flavor changes. Where possible make them fresh every day and keep in very cool room or in the ice box and remember that the juices of all fruits are subject to rapid fermentation and their flavor changes quickly even when combined with sugar syrup.


Since all syrups can be prepared for between 50 and 75 cents, it certainly means saving of money to make them when they cost from 80 cents to one dollar  gallon, when purchased ready to use. When advise the making of syrups do not refer to the stocks and concentrated syrups, for with rare exceptions it pays the dispenser to purchase these, with the exception of the time when they are in the market fresh.


There are number of ways for making syrups. The man who knows how, can obtain fairly good result even with poor materials. It is also possible to misuse materials so that poor results are obtained, even when the best of materials are used.

There is limit to the flavoring power of any concentrate, and there is no use of diluting them to such an extent that the syrup will not impart any flavor. Two or three parts of simple syrup is all that can be used to one of concentrated syrup, but to the fruit stocks you can add three or four parts of simple syrup.


The density of finished syrup should be the same as that of good simple syrup which is 32 degrees Baumé and it should not go below 31 degrees. When pint or more of any material is used, the density of which is about the same as water, sufficient sugar should be dissolved to make up the difference.


Plain or simple syrup, as it is usually called, is practically the base of all soda water syrups, and it stands to reason that the quality of the finished syrups will depend in some degree upon the quality of the base. Sometimes think the ease with which syrup is made causes dispensers to become careless and not to take the pains that they should with its preparation; this no doubt is due more to ignorance than to carelessness.

There is quite diversity of opinion as to the best syrup for fountain use. Many dispensers think that there is nothing like rock candy syrup. Others claim that it should be saturated solution of sugar and water. The objection to these heavy syrups is that in order to have good soda water you must have syrups that are even in sweetness, so that when one and half ounces is put in 12-ounce glass and it is then filled with carbonated water, it will always be the same. This is necessary for the soda dispenser to know how much to use; moreover, it enables him to be economical. You cannot have this uniformity, when the rock candy syrup is used, because it varies, and therefore no set rule can be given for its dilution and it is necessary to use saccharometer to obtain even results. For this reason syrup made from sugar and water is preferable, for it is always the same when it is accurately weighed and measured.


While no set rule can be given for all dispensers, because some like to make thin syrup and use plenty of it, and others small quantity of heavy syrup, still there is what is known as standard syrup, which will meet the needs of most dispensers. This is made by dissolving 12 pounds of granulated sugar in gallon of water it registers 32 degrees Baumé. Some like syrup that registers as low as 30 degrees, but to my mind this is too low. Others like one that registers 33 ¾ degrees Baumé this is especially true of those who serve soda water that is very high in quality. The following table will enable the syrup maker to tell at glance how to make syrup of any desired concentration.


There are three methods of making simple syrup, known as the hot process, the cold process and percolation. The hot process is the best one for extemporaneous work or where the syrup will be used up within reasonable length of time. This process consists of putting the desired amount of hot water into the syrup container, adding the sugar and stirring it until it is dissolved and you have good syrup quickly prepared. The only objection to this process for fountain use. is where syrups must be kept for some time in unfavorable conditions, which increase the tendency to fermentation. The reason for this being when heat is used to dissolve cane sugar in water, it is split up into parts, dextrose and levulose. While sugar of itself will never ferment and retards fermentation, when added to fruits, etc.; still when it has been divided into dextrose and levulose it is open to the attacks of microorganisms which cause what is known as fermentation.


Quantity of Sugar Added
to Gallon of Cold Water
Quantity of Syrup Obtained

Percentage of Sugar Contained in the Syrup

At the Temperature of 6o° F.

Gals.          Pts.         Ozs.

Specific Gravity - Degrees Baume
1 lbs.
1                   0           10

10 ¾

1.043                                  6
2 lbs.
1                   1             4

19 ¼

1.080                                11
3 lbs.
1                   1           14

26 ½

1.113                                15 ½
4 lbs.
1                   2             8

32 ¾

1.142                                18
5 lbs.
1                   3             2

37 ½

1.166                                20 ½
6 lbs.
1                   3           12

41 ¾

1.188                                23
7 lbs.
1                   4             6

45 ¾

1.227                                26 ¾
8 lbs.
1                   5             0


1.244                                28 ½
9 lbs.
1                   5           10


1.258                                29 ½
10 lbs.
1                   6             4

54 ½

1.271                                30 ¾

Syrup registering:
  6 degs. Baumé contains 10 parts sugar in 100
11 degs. Baumé contains 20 parts sugar in 100
16 degs. Baumé contains 30 parts sugar in 100
22 degs. Baumé contains 40 parts sugar in 100
27 degs. Baumé contains 50 parts sugar in 100
32 degs. Baumé contains 60 parts sugar in 100

The cold process which is identical except that cold water is used in place of hot water. It takes little longer for cold water to dissolve sugar and therefore is not quite as convenient, but where necessary it can be done. When your water is bad and liable to contain germs it should be filtered, then boiled and allowed to cool before using it in making cold process syrup.

The habit that some dispensers have of boiling the syrup is not to be recommended because in boiling there is an evaporation which means an uneven syrup, and being no quicker than the hot process it is not recommended.

Percolation is method employed by many and is fairly satisfactory where heavy syrup that will register about 34 degrees Baumé is desired, but when an attempt is made to produce lighter syrup there is tendency to unevenness and therefore it must be carefully watched and tested with saccharometer if you want good results, and this in spite of all that may be said to the contrary. The syrup made by percolation is bright and clear because it has been filtered, but any syrup will have this quality if you will take the trouble to run it through felt filter bag. The one advantage of percolator is an ever-ready supply of syrup; that is to say, the percolator can be kept at work all the time making syrup so that your supply is always ready when you want it. There are several excellent percolators on the market and those desiring to use this process should have good percolator.