lean meat, 30 lbs. fat meat, chop fine and mix with 31 oz.
salt, 3 oz. pulverised saltpetre, 6 oz. ground white pepper,
11 oz. whole white pepper. Stuff tightly in hog bungs or
beef middles. Hang in a cool place from eight to twelve
days, then smoke six to eight days. Should the sausage
become white in the course of time, it can be cleansed with
a woollen cloth dipped in lard. In winter they may be kept
from four to six weeks without being smoked. If made of
coarsely chopped meat, they will remain juicy much longer
Pork Sausage—Use one-third fat and two-thirds lean
pork, chop fine and add 9 oz. of salt, 4½ oz. ground pepper ;
if for immediate use, add a little cardamon and lemon
peel. Stuff in narrow hog casings. Tie in links containing
4 oz. of meat.
Pork Sausage. —
16 lbs. pork.
5 lbs. fat.
7 lbs. bread.
3 lbs. sausage meal.
9 oz. salt.
3 ozs. pepper.
1 ozs. rubbed sage.
2 ozs. dry antiseptic.
Pork (Stuffed Leg).—When a pig's leg is to be
stuffed care must be taken in the killing to have it properly
cleaned, and not to have it all cut into. The legs must
be cut off as high up as possible. Then the skin is to be
drawn off them down to the claws, which are to remain
on. Lay for a day in brine, and then for quarter of an
hour in lukewarm water, and then dry with a cloth. Sew
the top opening up till there is only space enough at the
socket of the leg to admit the sausage stuffer. Then make
a stuffing of veal and pork, the latter to be well washed.
Take 5½ lbs. of each, and chop very fine, adding the
following spices:—5 oz. salt, 1 teaspoonful of saltpetre,
¾ oz. ground pepper, 1/6 oz. ground ginger. Work all together
with water. Then fill the legs with the stuffing, using the
sausage stuffer. Fill very tight, and sew up the small
openings very close. Boil slowly for half or three-quarters
of an hour, and take out and lay on a table until perfectly
Preserving Beef, etc.—It is always desirable to have
oak tubs for the purpose of pickling beef, as they are easily
handled and do not impart any flavour to the meat. Another
requisite is a pickle pump. Beyond these, the requirements
are a sufficient supply of salt, dry antiseptic, pure cane
sugar, pure saltpetre, a mixture of coriander seed and juniper
berries—this latter being used for giving a piquant flavour
to the meat. When satisfied as to the quantity of pickle
necessary, proceed to make it as follows :—
55 lbs. salt.
5 lbs. dry antiseptic.
5 lbs. saltpetre.
5 lbs. pure cane sugar.
Make the whole of this up to 20 gallons with pure water,
and, if it is not clear, boil the pickle and skim it until it is.
Put this into the pickle tub, so that there will be a sufficient
quantity to immerse the meat in. Before putting the meat
in, however, some of the same pickle should be injected all
through the meat by means of the pickle pump referred to.
When the meat has been put into the pickle, put a circular
boarding on the top, so as to keep the meat in the pickle;
the cure or pickling will be complete in about seven or ten
days. In every tub of pickle there should be placed a bag
containing 3 to 4 lbs. juniper berries and coriander seed.
This gives a piquancy to the meat.
Preserving Pickle.—The antiseptic in above pickle
preserves it, but in time the pickle will get charged with
blood which exudes from the meat. All that is then neces-
sary is to boil the pickle, and the organic matter will either
rise to the surface, where it can be skimmed off, or will pre-
cipitate to the bottom, where it will settle.
The pickle should always test on salinometer 100°; and
if at any time the strength falls below this, ingredients, in the
proportions named above, should be added.
Pressed Sausage (Presswurst). — Take 5 lbs.
streaked pork from fore-leg, which has been in a salt
pickle with salt, saltpetre, and cane sugar, 10 lbs. snout,
ears, etc., 3 lbs. salted pigs' tongue.
Cut these all evenly into pieces like beech-nuts. Now
add 5 lbs. salted rind of pork, made very tender, and some
boiled calves' feet without bones, both chopped like peas,
and salt the whole to taste. The whole should be well
worked together with 2 quarts of very strong stock. Then
season with 1½ oz. white pepper, ½ oz. Nutmeg, ½ oz. ground
coriander, 3 ozs. eschalots, grated and salted. Work this all
well together, and fill not too full into pigs' stomachs, and
let them simmer according to size from one hour and a-half
to one hour and three-quarters: they should be turned
pretty often. This pressed sausage should be sold fresh,
but if it is necessary to keep some a few days, smoke in
Red or Blood Sausage.—Use the meat from the
belly, chuck bones lean and fat. You may also use the
heart at your option. Cut in small pieces, cook from one
to three hours, according to the age of the hog, pour off
the grease that rises to the top of the water. After the
meat is well freed from grease, to 100 lbs. add the follow-
ing :—Salt 29 ozs., marjoram 3½ ozs., pepper 5¼ ozs., cloves
1 oz., ginger 1 oz. Have it all ground fine. Use meat and
blood in proportion to make a soft mass, but before mixing
the blood with the meat, all the lumps of blood should be
passed through a fine sieve, to make it of the proper con-
sistency. Then fill the mass into large casings (not too
tightly), and tie the ends. Place the sausages in boiling
water, stirring continually, or the blood will collect on the
under side. As soon as the sausage begins to float, prick
with a fork the places where the fat gathers. If care is
not taken in doing this the sausage will not be good; boil
them as long as the fatty substance in them escapes. Then
remove and wash in cold water; they are then ready for
eating either hot or cold. Sausage prepared in this way will
not keep any length of time, especially in warm weather.
If they are to be kept longer they must be smoked. In
smoking, hang them so they do not touch each other.
Some butchers smoke them as long as seven days. After
removing from the smoke house they must be placed in the
To this class of sausage also belongs the so-called Gruetz-
wust, or pealed buckwheat grain sausage. It is made the
same as the preceding, with the exception that, just before
stuffing, you make a dough of buckwheat, using the neces-
sary salt, and mix with the meat according as wanted, using
more or less buckwheat. Commonly, two to four parts
of buckwheat are used to one part of meat, and a little
more spice than in the blood sausage. Cool as before.
Gruetzwust cannot be smoked, but must be eaten fresh.
It is fried with butter or lard, as suits the taste.
Rice.—Rice is one of the most useful and largely culti-
vated of all cereals, being the principal food of a considerable
portion of the population of the Eastern world. It is cul-
tivated in nearly all quarters of the globe, but principally in
India, Java, Japan, and China.
The seed or grain of rice grows on little separate stalks,
springing from the main stalks, and has something of the
appearance, when ripe, of growing oats. Rice can only be
grown in a moist soil and a warm atmosphere, and, as
artificial irrigation is largely resorted to, the places it is
grown in are generally very unhealthy, more especially for
Like all cereals, there are a great number of varieties—at
least 100—but the best is considered to be that grown in
Java and Japan, which commands a fancy price in the
European markets. In many parts of India, and some
other countries, two harvests are secured each year.
The settling of Burmah was the means of opening up an
immense trade in this article, and large mills are running,
with modern machinery, cleaning rice for every part of India,
China, Eastern, and different European ports.
The rice, when first harvested, is called "Paddy," and,
before it is shipped to the Western markets, the husk
(or outside skin) is roughly removed, and as soon as it
arrives at its destination, it is put through machinery which
removes first the remainder of the husk, then the inner
skin, which is called meal, and is largely used for cattle
food. The rice is then passed through polishing machines,
and cleaned up to the requirements of the trade. The
grain, being very brittle, breaks largely in this process ; and
the broken grains from the hard rice from Calcutta, Java,
and Japan, are then manufactured into ground and granu-
lated rice, which is used in nearly every household in
England. The broken from the softer grain rices from
Rangoon, Saigon, Moulineiu, goes largely for making into
starch, containing, as it does, nearly 80 per cent. of pure
starch. There is also a large business done with America
in granulated rice for brewing purposes.
Rice, being hard, is considered very dangerous in the
process of cleaning by the Insurance Companies, and, next
to the manufacture of explosives, is rated highest.
The Japanese make a very useful paper of rice, and a
kind of beer called Saki.
For poultry of all kinds, rice is considered very good, and
a large quantity of partly-cleaned rice is consumed in
this way. In hot climates it is considered almost a cure for
dysentry and other bowel complaints.
Rind Roll.—Take from a young pig a rather large piece
of rind from which the fat has been removed. Make a
paste of half veal and half pork, and season with salt,
pepper, nutmeg, cloves, and some finely grated lemon rind.
Work together with water, and spread two inches deep on
the rind next to the fat side. Roll up lengthwise, then roll
in a cloth. Tie at both ends and also round the middle.
Boil from an hour to an hour and a half, and when it comes
out of the pot press under a heavy weight. After twenty-
four hours remove the cloth and lay in a dish.
Roast Pork, with Stuffing.—Young and well fed
pork is necessary for this dish. Take a leg of pork—cut off
foot, carefully take out all bones "excepting hock bone,"
and well stuff the cavity, from whence bones have been
extracted, with very finely chopped sage and onion, pepper
and salt, rub the rind well with a bit of back fat, roast before
a fire or in an oven, and when half done, score the rind with
a good sharp knife.
Rope Pulleys.—see Hoists.
Rose Extract.—Is dry antiseptic coloured with a
harmless scarlet colour during the process of manufacture.
Being soluble, this colour communicates a faint red shade
to the goods with which it is mixed.
Rosemary.—see Culinary Herbs.
Rose Pink Colour.—A colour used to impart a uniform
flesh tint to sausages sent out in the uncooked state. The
best way to use it, is to make the quantity required for each
days chopping into a paste the night before with warm
water, thoroughly stirring same; this prevents specks and
apparent discolourations appearing below the skin of the
sausage, arising from small grains of the colour which have
taken some time to dissolve. Rose pink colour should be
used at the rate of 1 oz. to 10 lbs. meat or sausage material.
This colour is also prepared in a liquid form known as rose
Rose Pink Solution.—A solution made from rose
pink colour and strained from all sediment or insoluble
residue. It is a very handy form in which to use the
colour, and it is much easier to regulate the proper quantity.
One and a-half ounce of the solution is sufficient for 20 lbs.
meat, and may be added to the chopping by mixing it with
the water which is used with the sausage meal.
Rost Sausage.—Take 60 lbs. of lean raw meat from
the cutlets and fore-quarters of the hog, 25 lbs. of veal cut
from the leg, 15 lbs. of fat pork; chop very fine and add
30 oz. salt, 9 oz. ground pepper, 1½ quarts fresh water; mix
thoroughly and stuff in narrow hog or sheep casings, twist
into double link sausages, each holding from 6 to 7 ounces.
These sausages are more thoroughly smoked in the lowest
part of the smoke house; but cannot be kept any length of
time as they become hard and dry in the course of a week.
In preparing them for the table, boil in water from 3 to
Rotary Pumps.—see Pumps.
Runners.—These are the small intestines of an ox, and
should be 1 in. to 1 1/2 in. in diameter and of a fair colour.
They are used mostly for Bologna Sausage, and generally
average about 20 lbs. meat to 1 lb. Skin.