Sunday, April 10, 2011

Danish Sausage and Meat Cures - part 11

I have allowed the “copy and paste” to proceed, starting with this post (No. 11 – Danish Sausage and Meat Cures), without my reformatting the text. This saves a great deal of my time.

Polish Sausage.—This is the national sausage of
Poland, loved by rich and poor.
Take 25 lbs. of pork, two parts lean, one part fat, which
has been salted for a few days with 1 lb. salt and a little
cane sugar. Grate down finely three sticks of garlic, salt
them, stir in amongst them a quart of water; then add the
meat which has first been chopped into pieces the size of
hazel nuts. Now add 1½ oz. Pepper, ½ oz. nutmegs. Mix
well and put into narrow pigs' skins very full: the skins
should be 2 feet 6 inches long. The sausages are then
filled, tied up, and doubled; each sausage will measure
15 inches. Hang them on a smoking-stick to dry for a day.
Then smoke them with beech-wood at a heat of 133° Fahr.,
and let them hang until they are thoroughly cooked inside
merely with the hot smoking.
They can be made in the hottest of weather without being
spoiled. The garlic need not necessarily be an ingredient.
If one should prefer to boil this sausage, then give only
a light smoke until the sausage is a yellowish-red colour,
and boil afterwards, directly after smoking, for twenty-five
This sausage is considered especially suitable for hunters.
Some prefer it to the finest of Strasburg liver-pies.

Poloney Dye.—Poloney Dye (Common).—Is a scarlet
dye, most generally used for poloney sausage dyeing, and is
prepared as follows :—1 oz. is added to every gallon of water
used, and should the requisite shade of colour not be
obtained, it can either be intensified or reduced by the
addition of either dye or water. It is always desirable
to have a considerable quantity of solution of dye at hand,
and for this purpose a large iron vessel, or a 36 gallon
barrel with one end stove in, may be used. When the dye
is required for use it should always be heated—preferably
by means of a steam-pipe going down to the bottom of the
barrel—and regulated with a tap. Poloneys should never
be dipped in boiling dye—it should be luke-warm only.
Another barrel of a similar size is necessary, and into it
is put, say, 20 gallons of cold water. To this add 2 lb. or 3
lb. of alum, and stir till all is dissolved. This solution is
always used cold. When the poloneys are cooked, fish
them out of the copper and plunge into solution of dye,
and be careful to see that no blobs of fat adhere to the
skins, as in that case the dye will not strike. When
satisfied that they are sufficiently dyed, fish them out and
plunge into the cold water and alum. Take them out and
cool on a rack or table If you have time to do so, turn
them once or twice so as to prevent the moisture from
settling in one side. When cold, rub them with a towel,
and they are then ready for sale.

New Poloney Dye.—A new kind of dye has come into
use recently, and requires different treatment altogether
from the foregoing. The new dye is conveniently described
as "No. 2," and will not penetrate the skins. Undernoted
are the instructions for use:—
Poloney Sausages.—Add from one to two tea-spoonfuls of
the dye to the water in the boiling copper before putting in
the goods for cooking.

Recipes for Pork Pie Paste.—No. 1 Recipe.
6 lbs. flour.
3 lbs. lard.
2 ozs. baking powder.
2 ozs. or to taste, salt.
To be mixed cold, with a little water added.
This quantity is sufficient to make paste for about six
dozen twopenny pies. Many prefer to add the lard hot to
the flour, and on the whole this is perhaps more successful.
Hungarian flour is said to be most suitable for paste.

No. 2 Recipe.
6 lbs. Flour.
2½ boiling lard.
¾ ozs salt.
2 ozs. baking powder.
i ozs. cornflour.
To be mixed together, adding about a small cupful of boiling water.

Pie Stock.—When the pies are withdrawn from the oven,
they should be painted over with some egg-flip, allowed to
cool in racks, in the open air if possible, and when cooling
they should be punctured with a wooden skewer, and stock
added through a funnel. It is well to save the rinds and hours
for this purpose, boiling them for three or four hours until a
jelly is extracted. In the liquid state this should then be run
into the pies.
To clarify the stock it should be passed through a filter. This
is made from a piece of thick woollen material, closely stitched
at the seams. It is shaped as shown, and mounted on an iron
tripod with a ring at the top, on which rests the ends of strong
wire to which is attached the cloth. After use, the cloth
should be carefully washed with a little soda, then rinsed with
scalding water, wrung out and dried, so as to be nice and
clean when wanted again. Another method of making jelly
is to dissolve 1 lb. of gelatine in a gallon of water. When
the jelly is filtered, the seasoning for it should be added,
consisting of—
10 ozs. white pepper.
10 ozs. salt.
Add ½ oz. to every gallon, along with 1 oz.
of food preservative (dry antiseptic).

Recipe for Short Pie Paste.
14 lbs. Flour.
3 ½ lbs. Lard.
½ pint water.
1 oz. salt.
Knead well.

Meat for above Recipe.
1 2 lbs. loin pork,
4½ fat.
4½ salt.
2¾ pepper,
2 ozs. dry antseptic.

Gravy for above. —4 lbs. of rinds and pork bones
boiled till tender, strain, add pepper and salt, and
pour liquid into pies half cold.

Meat for Pies.—The parts of the pig
used for pie making are the legs, and
they are usually preferred of large size,
because they are cheaper and firmer.

Pork Ribs (to salt).—Use the ribs with about ½ inch of
meat on them; rub well with salt, lay them one on top of
the other, and let remain for one week. They can then be
used either smoked or salted. Most of our best meats are
spoiled by over salting, and again by using too much spice.
Smoking meats does not preserve them, it merely saves
them from destruction by flies and insects.

Pork Sausages.—These may be made in various ways,
according to the price at which they are to be sold. They
are rarely made of the pure meat, as when so made they are
too rich and unpalatable. If, however, a large proportion
of the meat used be lean the richness will to a great extent
disappear. It is in all cases, however, advisable to have
present some sausage meal, bread, or granulated rice, even if
added only in small quantities, as by that means only,
firmness can be obtained. The following recipe is for a
first-class sausage :—
15 lbs. lean pork.
6 lbs. fat pork.
2 lbs. pressed bread.
2 lbs. sausage meal.
14 ozs. seasoning ("No. 1 pork," or from recipe below.
2 ozs. food preservative (dry antiseptic).
Rose pink colour (made into a paste) to tint required.
If the flavour of sage is desired, one ounce of rubbed sage
leaves may be added to above.

9 lbs. salt.
6 lbs. ground white pepper.
½ lbs. ground nutmeg.
½ lbs. mace.
Small quantities of cloves, cayenne pepper, or ginger may
be added to taste. A little rubbed basil also imparts a
splendid flavour. The addition of a little ginger keeps the
sausages from repeating.

The pork (lean and fat) is all cut with a hand knife into
pieces about three inches square and thoroughly mixed
together on a table. The pressed bread is then added, and
the mixture put into the bowl of machine, if it is a silent or
open bowl machine that is used, but should it be a close or
Alexander pattern machine with screw propeller all the
ingredients should be thoroughly mixed together on a table
then put into the hopper, adding a little water as the cutting
proceeds. With a silent machine the bread and meat are
cut roughly first then the sausage meal and other ingredients
are added. The whole mixture is cut to a very fine state,
until the various ingredients become thoroughly mixed, and
in such a condition as to present to the eye the appearance
of a homogeneous mass. This process should only take a
few minutes. The mixture is removed to a table or marble
slab or meat trough, from which it is taken in double
handfuls and thrown into the filling machine, from which it
is filled into the casings.

Pork sausages are filled into pig casings, and should be
linked six to the lb.

The quality of pork used must be very good ; any part of
the pig being used. Large pork is generally preferred, as it
is much cheaper and firmer. A good ordinary sausage is
made as follows :—
15 lbs. lean and fat pork and pork trimmings.
4 lbs. pressed bread or scalded rice.
4 lbs. sausage meal.
11 oz. No. 1 pork seasoning.
2 ozs. food preservative (dry antiseptic).
2½ ozs. rose pink colour.
If sage flavouring is desired, add one ounce of rubbed
sage leaves.

In cases where makers prefer to compound their own
seasoning, the following may be used :—
9 lbs. salt.
6 lbs. ground white pepper.
½ lbs.ground nutmeg,
to which should be added small quantities of cloves,
cayenne pepper, or ginger.

Smoked Pork Sausage.—
15 lbs. lean and fat pork.
3 lbs. Farina or other flour.
4 lbs. sausage meal.
11 ozs. No. 1 pork seasoning.
2 ozs. food preservative (dry antiseptic).
1 ozs. saltpetre.
1 ozs. smoke powder.
½ ozs. sugar.

Those who prefer to compound their own seasoning may
use the following :—
9 lbs. salt.
6 lbs. ground white pepper.
½ lbs. nutmeg.
1 lbs. lbs. Corianders.
½ oz. cayenne.
to which may be added small quantities of cloves or ginger.

The pork is cut up into pieces about three inches or so
square and mixed on a table. The pressed bread is added
and mixed with the pork. The mixture is then placed in

the machine, and after being cut somewhat the sausage
meal is added dry. Should the mixture become stiff, water
is added until the required consistency is obtained. The
seasoning and other ingredients are then added, and the
whole chopped very fine. Fill into wide pig casings and
hang in the open air for an hour in order that they may dry
and get firm, then place in smoke stove for three hours and
cook for thirty minutes at 180° Fahr. Previous to sending
them out rub them with a cloth into which has been
dropped some salad oil.

Saltpetre is added to impart flavour and also to heighten
the colour during cooking. It should be used in a finely
powdered state.

Smoke powder is essential to all smoked sausages which
are not smoked for an extended period. The flavour can
only be attained by this means.

Wiltshire Prime Pork Sausages—
24 lbs. lean pork.
8 lbs. fat pork.
5 lbs. pressed bread.
1 lb. sausage meal,
10 ozs. Salt.
4 ozs. ground white pepper.
¼ ozs. rubbed sage.
The appearance is very much enhanced by the addition
of some rose pink colour.

Pork Sausage (German Recipe).—Take 11 lbs. of streaked
bacon and chop it fine, seasoning with 4½ oz. Salt, ¾ oz.
ground pepper, and ¾ oz. allspice, and then mix the paste
with from 16 to 24 oz. of milk. Stuff into narrow pig skins
or wide sheep skins, and twist off into short lengths.

Pork Sausage.—
16 lbs. pork.
5 lbs. fat
7 lbs. bread.
4 lbs. pansitose.
1 No. 1 seasoning.
2 oz. dry antiseptic.
Extra Pork Sausage.—Take lean meat—shoulders are
the nicest — add from one-third to one-half more of fat
meat, according to taste. Chop the whole fine, adding 2 lbs.
of salt to 100 lbs. of meat Season to suit — 20 ozs. of
seasoning in 100 lbs. of meat giving the best results.
Stuff in narrow hog casings—not too tight. If the sausage
is to be used immediately, a very little cardamom and
ground lemon peel will add to the flavour. Potato flour
is often used in pork sausage. Preservative should be added
when the sausages are to be kept for any time.

Pork Cervelat Sausage.—From a young hog take 70 lbs.
lean meat, 30 lbs. fat meat, chop fine and mix with 31 oz.
salt, 3 oz. pulverised saltpetre, 6 oz. ground white pepper,
11 oz. whole white pepper. Stuff tightly in hog bungs or
beef middles. Hang in a cool place from eight to twelve
days, then smoke six to eight days. Should the sausage
become white in the course of time, it can be cleansed with
a woollen cloth dipped in lard. In winter they may be kept
from four to six weeks without being smoked. If made of
coarsely chopped meat, they will remain juicy much longer
than otherwise.

Pork Sausage—Use one-third fat and two-thirds lean
pork, chop fine and add 9 oz. of salt, 4½ oz. ground pepper ;
if for immediate use, add a little cardamon and lemon
peel. Stuff in narrow hog casings. Tie in links containing
4 oz. of meat.

Pork Sausage. —
16 lbs. pork.
5 lbs. fat.
7 lbs. bread.
3 lbs. sausage meal.
9 oz. salt.
3 ozs. pepper.
1 ozs. rubbed sage.
2 ozs. dry antiseptic.