23 lbs. beef.
7 lbs. pork, back fat.
8 lbs. bread, soaked and pressed.
4 ozs white pepper.
13 ozs. Salt.
¼ oz. ground nutmeg.
¼ ozs. ground ginger.
A wine-glassful of bi-sulphite of lime.
(Sausage meal or pansitose may be used instead of soaked bread).
To be chopped fine, filled into hog casings and bundled up six links to the lb. Larger or smaller choppings in proportion.
Epping (Pork) Sausage.—
30 lbs. pork (fat and lean).
8 lbs. bread, soaked and pressed.
13 ozs. salt.
4 ozs, white pepper.
1 oz. ground mace.
A wine-glassful of bisulphite of lime.
(Sausage meal or pansitose may be used instead of soaked bread.)
To be chopped fine, filled into sheep casings and bundled up eight links to the lb. Larger or smaller choppings in proportion.
Essences.—Spices and herbs used for flavouring purposes owe their special properties to the presence of what are termed essential or volatile oils. These oils have the property of evaporating away completely when dropped on paper leaving no mark, while the fixed oils, such as linseed, colza, etc., leave a permanent greasy stain. The volatile oils are extracted by distilling the herbs, spices, or flowers containing them, by boiling them with water, when the volatile oils pass over as vapour with the steam and are condensed in a suitable apparatus. Some oils are extracted by pressure, e.g., oil of lemon is extracted by rubbing the skins of the lemons with a sponge and squeezing out into a vessel. The term essence is usually applied to a solution of the essential oils in spirit. The process is simple ; the crushed herbs or spices are steeped in diluted rectified spirit for ten days or a fortnight, and the solution is filtered through blotting paper and is then ready for use. Instead of the herbs or spices, the oils extracted from them may be dissolved in spirit, and in this way an essence may be made in a few minutes. Another method is to distil the herbs or spices with spirit and water.
10 lbs. lungs.
6 lbs. scraps of meat, pork, etc.
5 lbs. stale bread (ground up) or sausage
3 ozs. food preservative (dry antiseptic).
½ lb. chopped onions.
12 ozs. Seasoning.
1 lb. black pepper.
½ oz. cayenne pepper.
1 oz. rubbed sage.
1 oz. rubbed thyme.
¾ lbs. salt.
(Keep this seasoning in tins. tightly covered up and ready for use).
Another recipe is as follows :—
Gather together all sundry pieces available—scraps of any odd kinds—boil till tender, chop finely and season rather highly, roll into balls, and envelope each ball in a piece of caul fish, pack closely together in baking tin and roast in good hot oven till fat boils out—this point is important to prevent sourness. Seasoning must be carried out with discretion, as allowance must be made for stock used which may have been previously seasoned. The most savoury seasoning ingredients are marjorum, cayenne, sage, black pepper, and salt.
Frankfort Sausage.—Take a middle-sized ham and clean out all the sinews, etc., and chop it, but not very fine. Ham should not be so finely chopped as other meats. To 22 lbs. of this sausage meat, add 7 ozs. of salt, 1 oz. ground pepper, four grated nutmegs, and enough ground cloves to cover the point of a knife. Mix well, and work in a little water until it is a stiff paste. Fill into narrow pig skins, allow the sausages to dry for a day, then smoke slmwly until they are yellow.
Frankfort Sausage (Smoked).—Take 25 lbs. of pork, from very young, light, and very much fattened pigs, which contains a great quantity of jelly. The meat may be taken from the hind or the fore-legs, the neck, or the breast. It should, before weighing, be freed from all bones and outside skin, and then hung up in a clean, cool place to cool and dry. The proportion should be about two parts lean to one part fat. Now mince the pork into pieces about the size of a hazel-nut, add ¾ lb. Salt, ¾ oz. white pepper, ½ oz. nutmeg, and mince the whole steadily, turning it often and continually cleaning the knives, adding a quart of water gradually while mincing. If it is very stiff, a little more than the quart may be added. Now mince the pork until the pieces are the size of barley grains, then divide it all into masses about the size required for each sausage, and throw these from hand to hand two or three times without kneading at all. Then prepare the filling machine, taking care always to fill the cylinder very full of meat, so as to leave no room for air.
Put the meat into narrow pig-skins (which have been first well washed and dried), filling them very full, then turn each up and tie the two ends together in pairs, weighing from four or five to every pound. Hang the sausages on clean smoking sticks and let them dry for five or six hours, then hang them pretty high up in the smoking-room across the width of the room (see " Smoke Stove.") The smoking should be accomplished with fresh air coming in. Smoke with fresh oak and beech sawdust, with an equal temperature of 72° to 78° Fahr., and let the sausages hang until they have a red-yellow colour, which will take from about eight to ten hours. If they are smoked more rapidly, they lose colour more quickly and don't keep so long. Before being eaten these sausages should be put in boiling water and boiled eight minutes.
Frankfort Meat Sausage. — The Frankfort Meat Sausage (Frankfurter Heischwurst) is made purely of pork.
The hind-legs, fore-legs and belly of the animal may be used. Take the finest, firmest quality of pork to be had from light, young pigs. If it is impossible to have it all pork, one-third beef may be used, but all pork is better. Take 20 lbs., then, of good pork, if possible, and mince the size of chestnuts, add ¾ lb. salt, then add a little water, and mince the size of hazel-nuts. Add now 1 oz. white pepper, ¼ oz. nutmeg, 3 sticks of garlic, 2 sticks of eschalots (finely grated), then mince until the meat is as fine as grains of rice, and throw the meat about from right to left on the block several times, but be careful not to knead with the hands. Now put the meat into narrow salted bullock runners, 2 to 3 inches long, fill them very tightly, tie them up, let the sausages lie from eight to ten hours to dry, and smoke them in a temperature of 64° to 68° Fahr., letting them hang until they are of a yellowish-red colour, and then boil from twenty-five to thirty minutes. They can be allowed to hang in the smoke-room until they are required, and then boiled, or they may be boiled as soon as they are ready: they may be eaten either warm or cold.
Frankfort Home-made Liver Sausage.—
The Frankfort Home-made Liver Sausage differs from other liver sausages, in as much as all the materials are raw, except the finely minced bacon.
Prepare after the following fashion :—
Take 10 lbs. raw pig's liver,
2 grated onions,
7 lbs. raw common pigs' fat.
First mince the liver fine, add the raw fat and mince fine together, next add 3 lbs. of boiled fat bacon cut into small dice, then add 12 oz. fine salt, 1 oz. fine white pepper, 1/3 oz. Thyme, 1/3 oz. ground cloves. Mix these ingredients well together first, then work them well into the mixture, then fill all into middle-sized (in width) ox runners, 18 inches long, not too tight, indeed rather loosely. Then put the sausages into boiling water, and boil from forty to forty-five minutes according to their thickness. Prick them with a fork occasionally while they boil. It must not be expected that home-made liver sausage should be white, instead it should be of a grayish shade, but it has a piquant
taste: smoked, it tastes excellent.
Frankfort Liver Sausage (Common).— Take an ox liver; remove the outermost skin and the large veins; a pig's liver cleaned in the same way ; pigs' lungs or ox lungs with all the little air-canals cleaned out, particularly anything that has blood about it. Take equal parts of each and mince both finely together, then add from six to eight onions and some different fat leavings. For instance, to make about 40 lbs. of liver sausage meat,
12 lbs. raw liver,
12 lbs. raw lungs,
10 lbs. different "odd pieces" (fat),
6 lbs. bacon cut into dice.
1¼ lbs. Salt,
¾ oz marjoram,
2 ozs. Pepper,
1 oz. thyme.
Mince the meat, and add the spices and mix all well together, in winter adding as well, a few spoonfuls of strong stock, if procurable. Put into skins and let them boil until, when they are pricked with a skewer, the juice comes out clear. Wash them immediately on coming out of the pot with fresh water, but before taking the sausages out of the pot all the fat should be skimmed off the top, so that it may neither hang about the sausages nor be lost altogether. If a large supply of liver sausage is required on short notice, oxen and calves' plucks and calves' heads may be put in. These should be boiled some days before using, if possible, as they can then be chopped up with the other
ingredients early in the morning, the skins filled, and the sausages offered for sale the same day.
Fine Frankfort Liver Sausage. — This is prepared in many ways. The following is one of the best:—
Take 7 lbs. raw pigs' liver, free from blood; also 5 lbs. of boiled veal (don't boil until very tender) from the breast, the neck, or the cheeks. For a change calves' liver may be taken, provided that it is particularly clean and white. Mince the liver quite alone till very fine; add from twelve to fifteen fried eschalots or two fried onions. Now mince the veal fine along with 4 lbs. of boiled fat, collected from the inner organs, etc., of pigs. After all is finely minced, add 4 lbs. of fresh bacon cut into dice. To this quantity of sausage-meat— 20 lbs.—the following is the amount of spice required:—12 ozs. fine salt, 1 oz. white pepper, 1/3 oz. Fine white ginger, 1/3 oz. ground marjoram, 1/3 oz. ground mace, 1/3 oz. ground thyme.
Mix these spices well together first, work them diligently into the meat, and then taste it; it should be fine. Put them into wide white pigs' skins, and don't fill too full. Then put them in boiling water, and boil from half-an-hour to three-quarters of an hour, according to their thickness, trying them occasionally. They will be ready to come out then the juice comes out quite clear. Don't prick them too much so as to lose all the juice. After they are boiled, take them out of the pot, throw them into cold water, where they must remain until perfectly cold. This keeps in the juice, makes the sausage firm and the skin of a white colour.
Frankfort Blood Sausage.—For blood sausage, bacon only half-boiled is required. Cut it into pieces the size of peas, then put it into a large sieve and pour boiling water over it to get rid of all grease, then let it dry. By this means the sausage, when made, can be prepared much more quickly. Take, to make 40 lbs. of sausage meat, one-third of that of tenderly boiled and finely chopped rind of pork, and two-thirds finely minced bacon. For spices take 20 ozs. salt, 3 ozs. white pepper, 1¼ oz. allspice, 1 oz. fine marjoram, 1 oz. grated nutmeg, 12 eschalots, finely grated. Mix the spices well together, then add to the meal; again mix well. Afterwards add about 2½ to 3 quarts, according to taste, of fresh pig's blood, and work all well together. It is best to mix it in a tub. Now have ready an empty pig's stomach, and fill it three-quarters full. As soon as it is filled and tied fast, throw it into a kettle of boiling water. Do the same with the other, and stir them round lightly. Be careful to keep a special pot for cooking this sausage. Let them boil until, when tried with a skewer, the juice which runs out is quite clear. Now wash them, and then lay them on a table to dry and cool, turning them often that they may cool quicker. It is of great importance to have fresh blood. It may be pigs', calves', sheep's, or ox blood, but not from oxen unless they have been killed in such a fashion so that the blood has not got mixed with any of the foul stuff from the stomach of the animal. If the blood stands for a day, a scum will gather on the top of it which must be carefully skimmed off, and then it should be poured through a sieve and some salt added to improve the colour.
Frankfort Compressed Tongue —To make compressed tongue, first take either a fore-leg or hind-leg of pork. Chop it up coarsely with salt, saltpetre, and Indian cane sugar. The quantities are—
20 lbs. meat good quality (not too fat).
12 ozs salt,
1 oz. Indian cane sugar,
½ ozs. finest saltpetre,
2 sticks eschalot.
Chop this coarsely and then mix well; put into some covered place for 24 hours when it will be a lovely red colour. Now mince fine, adding during the process the following spices:—
1¼ oz. ground white pepper,
1/3 oz. Mace,
1/3 oz. Ginger,
1/6 oz. cardamom, finely ground.
Now cut a fine red tongue into large dice, say about 3 lbs., and add two handfuls of Pistachio nuts, mixing all gently and carefully, not to press the tongue-dice out of shape. Then fill into clean, salted, red bullocks' runners, 12 inches long, and tie them up tight. Boil from one and a half to one and three quarter hours, trying them as usual to see if they are ready. After they cool, they can be smoked to taste with sawdust with which has been mixed a few handfuls of juniper berries. This tastes well and makes them looks well.
Frankfort Yellow Sausage.—
7 lbs. pork (from the breast and liver),
3 lbs. brains.
Chop the raw pork; take away blood and skin from the brains of pigs, calves, and oxen. Chop it up and add to the pork, and mince both fine together. Add 1/3 oz. fine salt, 2/3 oz. fleshly ground white pepper, 1/6 oz. nutmeg grated. When all is finely minced and mixed together, put it into fine, white, fresh pig-skins, 18 inches long, not filling them too full, as the meat swells during boiling. Put the sausages in boiling water and boil from forty-five to sixty minutes, trying them in the usual manner. The sausages should be taken hot out of the pot, freed from grease, and then at once painted yellow equally all over.
The following is the recipe for the yellow colouring :—
Mix a tea-spoonful of saffron with two table-spoonfuls of rum, then add two table-spoonfuls of hot water and the beaten yolk of an egg. In summer it is better not to use the egg. If properly painted, this sausage should be a great ornament to the shop window, and when it is cut, it should present a very white appearance inside.
Frankfort or Vienna Sausage, Weinerwurst.—
No 1.—To 18 lbs. of veal, add 72 lbs. of lean and 10 lbs. of fat pork. Chop finely and mix well, adding 32 ozs. of salt, 10 to 12 ozs. ground white pepper (if black, one-third more), 1½ pints of water. Stuff and tie into sausages weighing 4 ozs. each; smoke 48 hours. Weinerwurst may be made from salted or pickled meats the same as from fresh. Garlic may be added if liked. Potato flour causes the meat to adhere together and allows a sufficient quantity of water to be added to make dry meats more moist and palatable.
No 2. -To 5 lbs. of lean pork, add 2½ lbs. of beef and 1 lb. of fat pork. Chop finely and add ½ lb. of veal to every 100 lbs. meat. Add from ¾ to 1 lb. of seasoning, and 2 to 5 lbs. of best German potato flour, which will allow the addition of considerable water. Mix well and stuff into best English sheep casings. Divide the sausages into equal parts and hang in an airy place for half an hour to dry. Smoke half an hour over a light fire, and finally an additional hour over a strong hot fire. Boil five minutes before being eaten. Weiner sausages will not keep long without becoming dry and unpalatable.
Frankfort Sausage.—Use 60 lbs. of lean, 25 lbs. side meat, 15 lbs. fat pork, chopped not very fine; add 14 ozs. salt, 7 ozs. ground white pepper. Stuff in hog casings, smoke for 48 hours. For table use, cook 5 minutes in boiling water. Do not keep too long, as they will be too dry to cook; but can be eaten cold.
GALANTINE of Boar's Head. —Take a good sized pig's head and scald until the skin can easily be removed. Take out the bones and meat, sawing off the bones near the snout so as not to interfere with its shape. Lay the skin and meat in pickle for five days. At the same time lay in pickle some tongues. At the end of that time remove all from the pickle, and boil until the meat falls from the bones. Now, prepare a mixture of veal, pork, and pig's tongues and two eggs, cutting all up into squares, and seasoning the whole with ordinary No. 1 pork sausage seasoning, to which has been added some whole peppercorns. Sew up the skin of the neck, leaving only a small aperture for the insertion of the sausage filler funnel. Tie up the mouth, and stuff the nostrils with pieces of fat, and proceed to fill in the mixture until the whole skin is distended tight. Now roll the whole in a cloth, allowing the ears to stick up, and boil for about one and-a-half hours, never permitting the ears to get beneath the boiling water. Remove when thus boiled, and paint the whole skin over with a weak solution of saffron so as to produce a yellow colour. When sufficiently cool remove the cloth and insert in the mouth a small lemon and glass eyes in the eye-holes. Garnish with such decorations as may be at hand, such as artificial flowers or crayfish, etc. The head is then ready for serving.
Galantine.—Take the bones and sinews out of a leg of veal, and weigh 11 lbs. of it; also 5 ozs. of anchovies, removing the bones. Add the anchovies to the veal, and chop up very fine together. Mix with it 4 ozs. of salt, 1 oz. of ground pepper, and 2 grated nutmegs, and make the whole into a paste with water. Then take a handful of pistachio nuts, 1/8 of a glass of French truffles cut into dice, and about a lb. of raw bacon, and the same quantity of salted and cooked tongue, both also cut into dice. Work all these lightly through the paste, and then make it up into little rolls in the form of thick sausage, roll them in cloths, and tie up fast with string. Boil for an hour; let them lie in cold water for another hour, and then hang up to drip. When they are perfectly cold take off the cloths.
Garlic is a wholesome aromatic herb with bulbous roots, which split up into lesser bulbs. It is much cultivated in France and Germany for culinary purposes, and is beginning to be more used in England for a similar purpose. In sausage recipes it is very often an ingredient. It also figures in the recipes of French cooks. To mix it with food of any kind it has to be bruised with a knife into a fine mass, or it can be cut into slices and infused for an hour in wine. The wine is strained off and used for flavouring.