For Butter, Cheese, Hay, Butcher Meat, etc.
16 drops . . . . . . = 1 minim
16 ozs. . . . = 1 lb. = 22 ½ ozs.
16 lbs. . . . = 1 stone = 22 ½ lbs.
The lb. varies from 20 to 28 ozs. in different parts of Scot-
land; 22½ ozs. is the old Glasgow lb.; 22 Imperial ozs. was
the number fixed by an Edinburgh jury in 1826.
Eccentricities of English Weights and Measures.—We sell
pickled cod by the barrel, trawled cod at so much each,
hooked cod by the score, crimped cod by the pound, shrimps
by the stone, soles by the pair, Dutch smelts by the basket,
and English smelts by the hundred. Butter in Ireland is
sold by cask and the firkin, in England by the pound of
16 ozs., by the roll of 24 ozs., the stone and the hundred-
weight, which is not 100 lbs. (as in Canada and the United
States) but 112 lbs. A load of straw is 1296 lbs., of old
hay 2016 lbs., and of new hay 2160 lbs. A firkin of butter
is 56 lbs., a firkin of soap 64 lbs., and a firkin of rasins
112 lbs. A hogshead of beer is 54 gallons, but a hogshead
of wine is 63 gallons. A pipe of Marsala is 93 gallons, of
Madeira 92 gallons, of Bucellas 117 gallons, of port 103
gallons, and of Teneriffe 100 gallons. A stone weight of
a living man is 14 lbs., but a stone weight of a dead ox is
8 lbs.; a stone of cheese is 16 lbs., of glass 5 lbs., of hemp
32 lbs. A barrel of beef is 200 lbs., butter 224 lbs., flour
196 lbs., gunpowder 100 lbs., soft soap 256 lbs., beer
36 gallons, tar 26¼ gallons, while a barrel of herrings is
Westphalian Bologna.—Take equal parts of fat and
lean raw pork cut into small pieces the size of a hazelnut
mix with 16 ozs. salt, and 4½ ozs. ground pepper. Stuff in hog
casings, let them hang in an airy place for a few days, then
smoke one week. They are eaten either raw, boiled, or
Westphalian Sausage.—Take three parts of lean and
one part of fat pork, and cut into small pieces like dice.
The meat of the neck and forelegs of young pigs is best
suited for this sausage. When it is all put up, season with
salt, pepper, and cloves, so that it tastes mildly of the
spices, and knead all together; stuff into long narrow
casings, and let dry out of doors for several days, then
Note.—The above sausage is made almost exactly like the
"Saster" of the country people in Scotland, only in the
north the smoking is omitted, and the "Sasters" are dried
by hanging from a string attached to the ceiling in the
kitchen. The Scotch sausages are usually kept for several
months before being used.
White Puddings.—It seems that white puddings are
one of the delicacies partaken of by royalty, and Francatelli,
the famous cook, gives them as one of the dishes prepared
for Her late Majesty the Queen Victoria.
Royal White Puddings.—To half a pound of the breast of
a roast fowl thoroughly pounded and passed into a puree,
add half a pint of boiled double cream, half a pound of
fresh made and very fine bread crumbs; one onion chopped
fine and boiled down in some white broth, four ounces of
butter and eight yolks of eggs; season with pepper and salt
and grated nutmeg; mix well together, put this preparation
into the skins, and finish them in the same manner as the
black puddings. When about to send to table, score the
puddings before they are broiled, and place them on the
gridiron on a sheet of oiled paper. When nicely broiled
serve them dished up with either of the following sauces
Supreme Richelieu, Poivrate, essence of eschalots, of truffles,
or of mushrooms.
Scotch White Puddings.
10 lbs. fine oatmeal.
7 lbs. beef suet.
2¼ ozs. ground white pepper.
2 ozs. fine powdered salt.
Free the suet from all skin and stringy matter, and chop it
into pieces about quarter inch square either by hand or fat-
cutting machine. Mix all the ingredients together thoroughly
in a basin or tub, and fill loosely into narrow "beast"
runners or middle gut, pricking them to let out the air.
Tie up into circular shape, and cook in boiling water for
thirty minutes. They may then be hung on poles to stiffen.
Another recipe is as follows :—
10 lbs. fine oatmeal.
7½ lbs. finely-chopped suet.
2 ½ lbs. Onions.
10 ozs. Salt.
2½ ozs. ground black pepper.
Wienawurst.—Take 18 lbs. of veal, 72 lbs of side
meat, and 10 lbs. fat pork. Chop very fine, mix well, and
add 32 oz. of salt, with 7 oz. ground white pepper. Stuff in
narrow hog casings ; tie in links, holding 4½ oz. each ; can
be cooked in three minutes.
Wienerspolse.—see Bacon Curing in Denmark.
Wiltshire Method of Rendering Lard.—see Lard
Rendering as practised in Wiltshire.
Wiltshire Sausages.—To make 40 lbs. of sausages :—
Seasoning—10 ozs. salt.
4 ozs. Pepper.
¼ ozs. dry sage.
Meat—24 lbs. lean meat.
8 lbs. fat meat
6 lbs. bread.
It is best to use meat the day after it is killed. Bread
may be soaked in winter, but must be squeezed well dry.
Bread one day old can be used.
Yorkshire Poloney Sausages.—
8 lbs. lean pork.
8 lbs. fat pork.
2 lbs. granulated rice (scalded).
2 lbs. sausage meal.
2 ozs. food preservative (dry antiseptic).
10 ozs. seasoning.
9 lbs. salt.
6 lbs. white pepper.
1 oz. Cayenne pepper
4 ozs. nutmeg.
4 ozs. Mace.
Method of preparation.—Cut the pork into small pieces,
and mix in the scalded rice. Chop this slightly, then add
the sausage meal and what water is required. Add the
other ingredients, and chop the whole very fine. Fill into
weasands, cook for an hour at 200° F., and dye either with
brown or poloney dye.
Notes on ingredients.—The pork is preferred from large
pigs, as it is always firmer. Scalded rice is preferred to
bread in many parts. In Yorkshire, however, there is no
rule in the matter, bread or rice being used according to