Stuffed Pig's Head.—Cut the head from a young pig
(which has a finely formed head) down as far as the neck
piece, almost a hand's breadth under the ears. Cut out the
bones, but be careful not to let the skin get broken,
especially above the eyes where it is very thin. Then cut
the flesh away from each side, leaving it only one-third of an
inch thick. So that the head may not be shaky, cut away
about a hand's breadth under the cheeks. Next sew with
string into a neat shape, leaving an opening where the
stuffing may get in. Measure this hole, and cut a cover for
it from any skin left over.
The stuffing—Take 10 lbs. of young streaked pork, chop
it coarsely. Add 5 oz. salt, and let it stand for twenty-four
hours. Then take four eschalots, fry them in butter after
mincing them fine, add them to the salted pork with ½ oz.
finely ground white pepper, 1/6 oz. mace (fine), two handfuls
fine green Pistachio nuts, 1¼ oz. fine Perigord truffles cut
into dice; also one fine red salted boiled tongue cut into
pieces the size of hazel-nuts. Mix all well together, and fill
into the head. Sew it up, and hang for two hours in smoke
until it is a yellowish-brown colour. Then roll up in a
napkin, tie it tight on both sides of the head with string,
just like a roly-poly. Boil for three to three and a half
hours, according to size of head, then let it get perfectly
cool. Then take the two ears which have got all rolled up,
and dip them in hot water, so that they may afterwards
stand up straight of their own accord. Put a piece of stick
in each ear until they are cold again. The head should be
chestnut-brown now. Make eyes by filling in the holes
with fat and stitching a juniper-berry in the middle of each,
or put in glass eyes. Now put a lemon and some laurel
leaves in the snout, ornament the head with red and white
jelly, and syringe with fat.
Stuffers.—see Sausage Fillers and Stuffers.
Sucking Pig (for Roasting).—Choose a pig from
3 to 4 weeks old, slaughter, scald with water not too hot,
clean carefully, care being taken not to injure the skin (it
may be singed with alcohol to remove the fine hair), remove
the insides without cutting open the entire length, separate
the ribs from the backbone, remove the latter and also the
head bones. Take out the eyes, and salt before stuffiing.
Chop 2½ lbs. raw lean pork, 2½ lbs. raw veal, 17 oz. raw fat
pork, 5 lbs. fat white goose liver, several eschalots previously
fried in butter, 26 oz. truffles cut in thin slices, season with
2 oz. salt and 1 oz. ground pepper, mix well with 6 raw
eggs, sew up the opening, place the front feet forward, the
hind legs drawn under the body, decorate as in "Filled
Sugar.—see Cane Sugar.
Sugar Feeding. Pigs. -see Molasses or Sugar Feeding for
Summer (or Cervelat) Sausage.—To equal parts of
good beef and lean pork add one-fourth of the amount of
fat pork. Trim the beef free from sinews and beef fat, chop
fine, then add the lean pork; chop again and add the fat
pork in small squares. Chop until well mixed, adding salt
and pepper to suit the taste. Stuff into hog bungs or beef
middle casings very tightly, and hang in the open air 4 or 5
days. Smoke very slowly 3 to 5 days. To remove the
white appearance that they sometimes have after being kept
a while, rub with a cloth saturated with fat. This sausage
may be kept from 4 to 6 weeks in winter time. By making
summer sausage the same as above, but allowing the meat
to be very coarse, it is called Salami. It will remain good
perhaps a greater length of time. Care should be taken not
to allow any unfilled places in the sausage casing, and no
water should be added. Casings to be used for summer
sausage should be thoroughly washed and soaked in water
24 hours before using to entirely remove the salt.
Swiss Potted Head.—Take two pigs' bladders; cut
them open, and lay for a day in a salt pickle. Then salt the
ears, the tongue, and the forelegs of a pig. Boil until tender,
and cut into large slices. Make a paste of 6½ lbs. of good
veal, chopped very fine, 2½ oz. of salt, ½ oz. of ground
pepper, 1/3 oz. of cloves, and 1/6 oz. of ground ginger. I.ay
one of the bladders on a table, then put on it a thin layer of
veal paste; on that put a layer of slices of pork and tongue,
then another layer of veal paste, and so on until both are
used up. Then lay the second bladder on the potted head,
and wrap the head in a cloth. Tie it up fast, and
boil gently for three or four hours. Press it for
twenty-four hours under a heavy weight, take off the
string and cloth, and it is ready.
Thuringian Red Sausage.—14 lbs. thick streaked
pork off the belly part (half tenderly cooked), cut into ¼ inch
square dice; 3 lbs boiled pigs' rind, 4 lbs. raw liver and
lungs, finely minced. This may be varied by substituting
salted boiled tongue or salted boiled heart, cut into pieces of
Now put 8 lbs. of blood into a tin dish, and then into a
big pot, and stir constantlv until hot. Add first the rind,
liver and lungs, and stir well, and then the pork. Season
with 1½ lbs. fine salt, 3 oz. white pepper. 1 oz.
ground marjoram, 1/3 oz. ground caraways, 1/3 oz. finest
cloves. Work all thoroughly together, and as quickly as
possible fill the hot meat into the widest pigskins you have.
Give plenty of room, and then put at once into water which
is boiling hard; stir constantly. Prick this sausage often,
and cook at a temperature of 212° Fahr. It is ready when,
on pricking, the fat which exudes is perfectly clear. Smoke
in cold smoke, with some juniper-berries in the sawdust.
Thyme.—see Culinary Herbs.
Tile Work.—see Shop Fitting.
Tin Tickets.—see " Climax " Tickets.
Tomato Sausages.—Mutton, 6 lbs.; mutton fat, 8 lbs.;
tinned tomatoes, 3 lbs.; sausage meal, 1½ lb.; scalded granu-
lated rice, 1 lb.; beef sausage seasoning, 10 oz.; rose-pink
colour, made into a paste, about 2 oz.
Seasoning.—Salt, 9 lbs.; white pepper, 7 lbs.; ground
nutmeg, ½ lb.
Method of Preparation.—Cut the pork up fine in the
machine, then add the tomatoes, after which add the
sausage meal and granulated rice, then the other ingredients.
See that the proper colour is attained before withdrawing
from machine. If it is not strong enough, add some more
rose-pink colour until the shade is correct. Fill in hog
casings and link six to the pound.
Notes on Ingredients.—Tinned tomatoes are much more
economical than fresh ones, but if the fresh fruit is easily
obtainable by all means let it be substituted. A less quan-
tity of the rose-pink colour is required when fresh fruit
Tongue Sausage—No. 1.—Make the same as blood
sausage. To 40 lbs. of this add eight pickled hogs' tongues
and two pickled beef tongues, cutting them into pieces two
or three inches long, distributing equally throughout the
casing. Stomachs are sometimes used for tongue sausage
No. 2.—Take 45 lbs. of meat from the belly, 25 lbs. from
the chuck bone, 20 lbs. from the neck, and 10 lbs. fat pork;
cook together for one hour; remove and cut in small pieces;
scald again and remove. Take 6 1/8 lbs. hog's liver with hog's
blood, sifted clean; mix well, then add 45 oz. salt, 9 oz.
ground pepper, 2¼ oz. ground cloves, 1 1/8 oz ground ginger,
3 oz. ground marjoram, and mix well with the balance.
Cut 32 pickled hogs' tongues and 4 beef tongues in slices
3 inches long and of fair thickness. Stuff in a hog's
stomach, hog bladder, or large calfs bladder, almost full,
then distribute the slices of tongue among it; the pieces
should be large enough so that 4 or 5 is all that is needed
in one sausage. The cooking is the same as in blood
sausage. Care should be taken to prevent the fat from
collecting in one place. The stomach or large casings
require about one hour, bladders about half an hour to
No. 3.—Take 100 lbs. fresh fat pork cut in small pieces;
mix it with 70 oz. of fine sow hog's liver. Sift in hog's
blood and mix it with 18 oz. Salt, 4½ oz. ground pepper,
2¼ oz. ground cloves, 1 oz. ground ginger, 2¼ oz. ground
marjoram. Work and mix the whole well. Stuff the same
as in the preceding, adding 8 pickled beef tongues; each
cut into 9 pieces, and each sausage containing 3 of these
No. 4.—Cook some bacon very lightly, then slice it into
thin pieces, lay them on the top of each other, and let them
get perfectly cool. Cut them then into small dice, pour boil-
ing water over them in a sieve, let them dry. While they are
drying, mince one third of the quantity of boiled pigs' rind
very fine, and then mix the two together.
Tripe Cleaning (the modern Scottish method).—
There are three methods of cleaning tripes. One is primi-
tive, generally that which the farmer's wife is conversant
with, viz., allowing the stomach and its contents to lie
for 24 hours, when the mucous membrane strips off easily.
The second method is that in which lime is used. It is
objectionable, as it makes the tripe soft, yellowish, and
gives it a nauseous taste. The most approved method is
that which is followed in the municipal abattoirs of Glasgow,
viz., the tripes are scalded in water about 130° Fahr., at
which heat the mucous membrane is loosened from the
stomach and is easily manipulated.
In the Glasgow abattoir, the first stomach, after being
scalded, is cleaned by machinery. Where such a large
number has to be cleaned daily, this machine is necessary;
but if some method were introduced so that the fibre on the
backs of the tripes were not broken, it would be perfection.
In the Paisley abattoir, the tripes there are cleaned by
the hand instead of machinery, as in Glasgow. By the
process in Paisley the "fleece" is kept on the tripes, and
therefore can hold more water, an important component
for the butcher in selling out. The other stomachs are
cleaned in the same manner in both places.
There has been invented by Mr Durie, of Edinburgh, a
machine for washing the mony plies. It is a large iron tank
with a semi-circular cover. The plies are halved, put in, the
cover shut down, and the revolving machine set in motion,
and in a short time you have the plies ready for scalding.
The mucous from off the fourth stomach is invaluable as a
stimulus to cattle and horses suffering from indigestion.
Tripe Dressing by Hand (English method).—The
first thing to attend to is to see that the tripes are cleaned
immediately they are removed from the bullocks, for if left
about any length of time they get stained, and depreciated
in value. To deal with one bullock's tripe the following is a
good plan :—Take three buckets of boiling water and add a
little soda, and one pail of cold water in a tub. Throw the
tripe into this, and stir with a stick until the dirt all comes
off. Take the tripe out of the tub, hang it on a hook, and
scrape with a very blunt knife until it is quite clean. Rinse
the tripe now well in fresh cold water, then throw it into a
copper with about five gallons of water. Add two ounces
of alum to the water, and boil until the tripe becomes quite
tender. The alum is used as a bleaching agent. Remove
the tripe now from the copper, and place in a running
stream, if possible, of fresh clear water. If that is not
possible, it must be put into a large quantity of water and
frequently stirred round in it. When it is quite cold take it
out and remove the thin inside skin, and also trim it. Now
throw it into a bath of cold water, to which has been added
about 10 per cent. bisulphite of lime, and remove for sale
or use. At night the tripe should be returned to the water
bath, and in summer it should be washed often in this bath
to keep it sweet.
Tripe Dressing (London Style).—As soon as possible
after the tripe is removed from the animal wash it very
thoroughly, being careful to prevent any of the impurities
going into the smooth part. Rinse in cold water, put it into
a tub with two handfuls of lime and a pail of tepid water.
Soak for an hour, then scrape well in the same water.
Rinse in fresh water, wash again on both sides, and finally
rinse in clear cold water.
Tripe Dressing (German Style).—The sooner dressed
when taken out of bullock the better. Gut of steers are the
best. Take three buckets of boiling water, add a little soda
and one pail of cold water in tub. Throw your tripe in and
stir till the dirt comes of with a stick. Take the tripe out of
tub, hang on a hook and scrape until quite clean with the
back of a knife. Place then in clean cold water, and use
plenty of it. Then throw the tripe into a copper of cold
water, add 2 oz. of alum with water. Boil until quite ten-
der—the alum keeps the tripe a nice white colour. Take out
of copper and place in cold water. Run on it until quite cold,
then take the thin skin off that is inside, and trim up, then
place the tripe in bi-sulphite of lime, that is to say in a weak
brine for a little time. Bay salt is the best for tripe to keep.
When tripe is sold in a shop it should always be put in
clean water overnight first and then be washed in the above
brine. That takes the slime off. Then place it in water
until morning. In summer it should be washed often
during the day.
Truffles.—Are delicate flavoured tubers much sought
after. They grow mostly in the South of France, and
principally in the vicinity of oak trees. Attempts to plant
them in various countries have utterly failed, and the exact
conditions under which they can be reproduced are not
known. They grow in scattered patches at a depth from 2
to 12 inches in the earth in light sandy soils, and are
gathered between October and March. Dogs are trained to
scent them out, and pigs also are trained in the same way.
It is said that the sense of smell of the pig is even keener
than that of the dog. Whether that is so or not, it is quite
an established custom in the districts where truffles are
found to keep pigs for the special purpose of scenting and
rooting them out.
There are two principal kinds of truffles, the black truffle
(tuber aestirum) and the white (choiromyces albus). The
black truffle is of a dark blackish colour and warty appear-
ance; it grows in size like a large plum, and even bigger.
It is found in more general distribution than any other.
The white truffle has not the same delicacy of flavour as the
black, and is not so much sought after. Truffles are used
in sausages and in many other dishes.
Truffle Sausage,—Take 60 lbs. of fresh hogs' livers
scalded clean and white, 25 lbs. of cooked fat from the
intestines, 15 lbs. raw fat pork, chop fine and add 4 lbs.
boiled and prepared truffles cut in small thin slices, 33 ozs.
Salt, 10½ oz. ground pepper; this is all the spice that is
necessary, as more will spoil the flavour of the truffle. To
this add one pint of wine, mix the whole and stuff into hog
casings, cook ¾ of an hour. Smoke and treat in the same
way as with plain liver sausage.