United Kingdom which have made more rapid progress in
recent years than sausage making, and the making of the
numerous small goods so well known as associated with the
business of pork selling. Only forty years ago the industry
was almost unknown. At that time the common method of
manufacture was to cut the pork or meat into very fine
pieces with a hand knife, mix the seasoning into it with the
fingers, then insert the narrow end of a tinned iron tube—
made narrow at one end and wide at the other—into the
casing or skin to be filled, and proceed slowly to push the
chopped mixture into the casing with the thumb, resting
the tube between the second and third fingers of the left
hand. At the present day that is all changed. The best
skill and greatest ingenuity of engineers have been brought
to the assistance of sausage makers, and the consequence is
that the most beautifully designed labour-saving machinery
can now be obtained, capable of producing sausages, in
almost any quantity, from 20 lbs. to 2000 lbs. per hour.
men of irreproachable character, whose reputation for integ-
rity was a sufficient guarantee to the buyers of their goods.
These men, it was noticed, slowly but surely blossomed into
men of substance; and it is a matter of common know-
ledge that businesses established on so secure a basis
by a former generation are now to be found in London
and many provincial towns. The concensus of opinion
amongst the proprietors of these businesses would seem
to indicate that factory labour, more especially the extended
employment of female labour, has been of great assist-
ance to them. It is reasonable to suppose that sausages
being so easily cooked, only require the confidence of
factory employees to make a large sale certain, as with
Of the early history of sausage making it is not proposed
to say anything here, but it may be interesting to notice
the causes which have led to the present satisfactory position
of the industry.
It was commonly believed until within a few years since
that sausage making was the last resort of beef and pork
sellers, when they were unable to dispose of certain odd
pieces of meat. Being unsaleable as pieces, the idea was
common that they were carefully chopped into indistinguish-
able fragments, highly seasoned, and carefully concealed
behind the "bags of mystery," as sausage skins were some-
times called. This notion was perfectly correct to a certain
extent, in so far as it concerned some traders; but firmly
established here and there over the country were to be found
proper care and the exercise of a little skill in the prepara-
tion of seasonings they can be made very palatable. There
is no question of their being nutritious, and compared with
the prices of other foods they are certainly economical. In
all food supplies, however, there is sure to be the inevitable
cheap and nasty products offered in competition against the
fairly priced and wholesome articles. Happily, the pork
and meat purveyors who sell unwholesome goods are getting
scarcer, as it pays better in the end to deal only in the
reliable articles. Even now, however, the vigilant Food and
Drugs' Act inspectors find it necessary to occasionally bring
before the magistrates some delinquent. Not only do such
traders destroy their own businesses but they injure the
innocent, who are the great majority. The finest beef and pork
are used now by respectable sausage makers in every
town, and this is the reason why the public confidence has
been gained; and, so long as purveyors do not abuse it, the
increase of the sausage making industry in the future is
A department of the pork purveyor's, which is now rising
into prominence, is known as "small goods." Under this
comprehensive term are included such articles as black-
puddings, saveloys, Vienna sausages, German sausages,
cooked hams, roast pork, savoury ducks, sausage rolls,
boiled cabbages, boiled peas, and a few other things of
smaller consequence. It is safe to say that this branch of
the business has been very much neglected, and is capable
of very great development indeed. There is nothing in this
country corresponding to the artistic and savoury products
of a French charcuterie. It may be objected that there is
no taste for fancy glazed goods, artistically dressed hams,
etc., here. But that idea has become entirely dissipated of
late by the brilliant success of some pork purveyors, princi-
pally in London, who have made these goods specialities.
The people to whom they are sold are not French residents
in London, as may be supposed, but the better middle-class
English families. Not only would such an adjunct be
instrumental in bringing more business, but it would be
very profitable in itself. From the artistic point of view
such a development is much to be desired, as the attractive-
ness of shop windows would be very much increased, and
there would be something to alter the unutterable, prosaic
dullness which is characteristic at present.
There are at present a very great number of machines
adapted to the chopping of meat for sausages of more or less
merit, but the ideal chopper has yet to be made. The
fault of the best machines is that they heat the meat slightly
during the process of cutting, and, therefore, superinduce
fermentation when the meat is filled into the casings. This
necessitates the addition of the powder "Food Preservative"
as an antiseptic to prevent the ferment, or "souring." On
the small scale, however, it is not necessary to notice this
defect much, as the machines obtainable are well adapted
to the production of meat in a normal condition, and it may
be taken for granted that sausages made in the small way are
seldom sent very long distances.
The whole business of sausage making in the United
Kingdom has been revolutionised during late years. From
a comparatively small industry to one employing thousands
of hands has been the work of only half a century, and at
the present moment there seems no limit to the develop-
ments which may yet be reached. Splendid factories for
sausage making are now in existence, turning out many
tons of sausages every week. The following description of a
large Scottish factory will serve to illustrate the extent to
which the business has been developed. "Starting at the basement
we find first of all a large cellar devoted to the curing of meats,
and for this purpose a special refrigerator is located there. It
serves to cool a space of alxiut 3,000 cubic feet, and is also
able to make about ten tons of ice weekly for use in
the retail establishments. But this refrigerator is only one of
three machines which, with eight chambers, are required
to conduct the business of the factory. The curing itself is
conducted on the wet system, by means of pickle of simple
composition, and the curing arrangements are convenient
and capable of turning out considerable quantities.
The first floor is devoted to meat hanging, boning,
and cutting-up, and it will be seen from the illustration
what quantity of raw material is handled.
There are two refrigerating chambers on this floor
constantly in use for cooling and keeping in prime
condition the many tons of beef and pork which are
handled daily. The second floor is occupied solely
by the packing room, offices, and two general
refrigeration chambers, which are cooled by
ammonia machines. The packing is conducted in a very
systematic manner, nine sets of weighing machines being
constantly employed, and everything possible being done,
by the employment of modern appliances, to effect a saving
in time and labour.
With regard to the offices, they are handsomely equipped,
as may be imagined. The telephone arrangements alone
are an indication of the business done. Each of the shops
—there are seventeen in Glasgow alone—is connected up to
the head office by direct telephone, and the receivers in the
offices are distributed in a number of little boxes, so as to
permit of many messages being received or sent at one time.
At the introduction of the telephone there was no such
thing as a public company to contract with, and con-
sequently the firm had to put up the poles and wires for
themselves. This now is happily a thing of the past.
The sausage room occupies the greater portion of the
third floor, and here immense quantities of sausages are
handled, the filling machines being worked by hydraulic
pressure supplied by the corporation. On this floor the
firm has adopted a special design of refrigerating plant with
the object of cooling and drying the sausages quickly and
thoroughly. The work is performed in three insulated
chambers, and the waggons carrying the sausages are
wheeled in and out of these as required. Amongst the
other departments on the third floor
are the bakehouse and the seasoning
rooms. The bakehouse is fitted with
four large modern ovens, which are
daily in use turning out vast quantities
of various delicacies. The seasoning
room is adjacent to the various depart-
ments where the many seasonings are
The fourth floor is a busy one, as here
are arranged all the cooking pans and
the operations of brawn making, black
pudding making, potted meat, and other
cooking are carried on. The enormous
quantity produced shows the great favour
in which these goods are held.
The fifth and sixth floors are occupied
as general stores and for the preparation
of special materials. On the yard level
is a very completely equipped house,
where are erected two large Douglas
bone digestors, lard pans, and bone
disintegrators, this department being
one which is well worth looking after.
Adjacent is a ham cooking house fitted
out with Douglas's patent steam ham
cooker. The main engine room and
boiler house are on the ground level,
and the power is derived from two boilers
(a Lancashire and a multitubular), giving
a total of about 150 horse-power. The
engines are one of 40 horse-power, two of
20 horse-power each, and one of 8 horse-
power. Of course, in such a large concern
there are many auxiliary departments, such
as dining roomsfor the employees, repairing
shop, carpenters' shop, etc.
Boiling and Cooking Department.
Vans ready to start deliveries.
The staff consists of several hundred
employees, and it may be safely said
that they have to be well qualified for
their respective tasks, as nothing but
high-class goods are produced in the
establishment, and none but first class
hands are wanted.
The goods made are in great variety,
as the following list will show :—Pork
sausages, Cambridge sausages, steak
sausages, steak Cambridge sausages,
tomato sausages, Blythswood sausages
(for slicing), ham and tongue sausages,
truffle sausages, boiling beef sausages,
Frankfort smoked sausages, luncheon
sausages, Yorkshire polony sausages,
etc., etc. Meats in hermetically sealed
glasses, prepared to keep, include spiced
beef, spiced pork, spiced beef and
tongue, Oxford brawn, chicken and
tongue. The cooked meats are —
Oxford brawn, spiced beef, spiced pork,
potted meat in shapes, oxtongue (for
slicing), roast pork, braised beef, veal ham
and tongue, boiled bacon, Scotch haggis.
Sundries include shoulder hams, lard in
links, bladders, and packets, dripping,
black puddings, white puddings, sweet
puddings, plum puddings (in three sizes). From the cake
and pastry department are turned out Blythswood pork
pies of various sizes, mutton pies, sausage rolls, mince
pies, mince cakes, apple cakes, sultana, Madeira, cherry,
Genoa, seed, and ginger cakes. As will be seen, the handling
of so many different perishable goods means that there must
be rapid transport, and this is provided for in a fine stud of
between thirty and forty horses.
The universality of sausage making makes one curious as
to what is done in other countries, and enquiry will show
that in Germany the business is developed much more
highly than in the United Kingdom. The series of
illustrations will serve to show how the business is con-
ducted in that country. Of course, as our recipes show,
the styles of sausage making are widely different, and
the mere mumber far exceeds anything we know of. In
fact, in Germany, sausage making is a recognised regular
trade, having newspapers devoted to its interests, and being
under regularly devised rules, such as would be in use in
any other large industry.
Sausage Making in Denmark.—see Bacon Curing
Sausage Meal.-—A special meal made from prepared
biscuits, baked free from alum and other ingredients, which
tend to make the sausage go sour. It is the most valuable
ingredient used in sausage making next to the meat itself,
as it holds the fat and moisture present during the process
of cooking, thus enabling the sausages to be presented at
table in a firm and good condition. The makers and
inventors of this article describe it as follows :—
"An absolute substitute for bread in sausage making, possessing a
splendid flavour, free from sweetness, perfectly dry, and
easily used, as it does not require to be soaked like bread.
It can be used dry, with water sprinkled over the chopping.
It holds the fat and water to about three times its own
weight, and keeps both from running out when cooking,
thus producing a firm, nicely-eating sausage. It does not
sour, and in this particular surpasses all other ingredients
used in sausage making."
Other articles used in sausages are biscuit meal, rice, farina,
corn flour, wheaten flour,pansitose, bread, and in short any
flour made from cereals.
Sausage meal takes a high place, however, because of the
ease with which it can be applied. It is always best to use
it dry, although some prefer to put a small quantity of warm
water, equal weight, into it the night before using, and allow
the same to become absorbed during the night, so that it
can be used in the morning in a slightly damp paste.
Sausage Recipes.—see under:—
Beef and Pork Sausage.
Beef Cervelat Sausage.
Boiling Beef Sausage.
Bread and Butter Sausage.
Brunswick Cervelat Sausage.
Brunswick Sardine and Liver Sausage.
Brussels Mosaic Sausage.
Epping Beef Sausage.
Epping Pork Sausage.
False Liver Sausage.
Frankfort Blood Sausage.
Frankfort Common Liver Sausage.
Frankfort Compressed Sausage.
Frankfort Fine Liver Sausage.
Frankfort Home-made Sausage.
Frankfort Meat Sausage.
Frankfort Smoked Sausage.
Frankfort Yellow Sausage.
Goose Brain Sa-.isagc.
Goose Liver Sausage.
Ham, Tongue, and Chicken Sausage.
Lung Blood Sausage.
Mayence Red Sausage.
Oberland Liver Sausage.
Onion and Liver Sausage.
Parisian Pork Sausage.
Raisin Liver Sausage.
Salami De Verona.
Spanish Sucking-Pig Sausage.
Thuringian Red Sausage.
Truffled Liver Sausage.
Truffle Goose Sausage.
Westphalian Bologna Sausage.
Yorkshire Poloney Sausage.