Thursday, December 31, 2009

Orange Marmalade.

Mrs. Beeton's Household

ORANGE MARMALADE.
Ingredients.—Equal weight of Seville oranges and sugar; to every Ib. of sugar allow if pint of water. Mode.—Weigh the sugar and oranges, score the skin across, and take it off in quarters. Boil these quarters in a muslin bag in water until they are quite soft, and they can be pierced easily with the head of a pin; then cut them into chips about 1 inch long, and as thin as possible. Should there- be a great deal of white stringy pulp, remove it before cutting the rind into chips. Split open the oranges,
Orange Marmalade
scrape out the best part of the pulp, with the juice, rejecting the white pith and pips. Make a syrup with the sugar and water; boil it until clear; then put in the chips, pulp, and juice, and boil the marmalade from 20 minutes to ^ hour, removing all the scum as it rises. In boiling the syrup, clear it carefully from scum before the oranges are added to it. Time.—2 hours to boil the rinds, 10 minutes the syrup, 20 minutes to J hour the marmalade. Average cost, Gd. to Sd. per Ib. pot. Seasonable.—Make this in March or April, when Seville oranges are in perfection.
ORANGE MARMALADE, an easy way of Making.
Ingredients.—To every Ib. of pulp allow 1^ Ib. of loaf sugar. Mode.— Choose some fine Seville oranges ; put them whole into a stewpan with sufficient water to cover them, and stew them until they become perfectly tender, changing the water 2 or 3 times; drain them, take off the rind, remove the pips from the pulp, weigh it, and to every Ib. allow 1^ of loaf sugar and ^ pint of the water the oranges were last boiled in. Boil the sugar and water together for 10 minutes ; put in the pulp, boil for another 10 minutes ; then add the peel cut into strips, and boil the marmalade for another 10 minutes, which completes the process. Pour it into jars; let it cool; then cover down with bladders, or tissue-paper brushed over on both sides with the white of an egg. Time.—2 hours to boil the oranges; altogether ^ hour to boil the marmalade. Average cost, from 6d. to 8d. per Ib. pot. Seasonable.— Make this in March or April.
ORANGE MARMALADE, made with Honey.
Ingredients.—To 1 quart of the juice and pulp of Seville oranges allow 1 Ib. of the rind, 2 Ibs. of honey. Mode.—Peel the oranges, and boil the rind in water until tender, and cut it into strips. Take away the pips from the juice and pulp, and put it with the honey and chips into a preserving-pan ; boil all together for about ^ hour, or until the marmalade is of the proper consistency; put it into pots, and, when cold, cover down with bladders. Time.—2 hours to boil the rind, 1/2 hour the marmalade.
Orange Marmalade, Pounded
Average cost, from Id. to 9rf. per Ib. pot. Seasonable. — Make this in March or April.

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Cook's oracle: containing receipts for plain cookery, on the most economical ... By William Kitchiner

TO MAKE ORANGE MARMALADE.
641. Choose the largest Seville Oranges, as they usually contain the greatest quantity of juice, and choose them with clear skins, as the skins form the largest part of the Marmalade. Weigh the Oranges, and weigh also an equal quantity of loaf Sugar. Skin the Oranges, dividing the skins into quarters, and put them into a preserving-pan ; cover them well with water, and set them on the fire to boil: in the meantime prepare your Oranges; divide them into Gores, then scrape with a tea-spoon all the pulp from the white skin; or, instead of skinning the Oranges, cut a hole in the Orange and scoop out the pulp; remove carefully all the pips, of which there are innumerable small ones in the Seville Orange, which will escape observation unless they are very minutely examined.
Have a large basin near you with some cold water in it, to thro» the pips and skins into—a pint is sufficient for a dozen Oranges. A great deal of glutinous matter adheres to them, which, when strained through a sieve, should be boiled with the other parts.
When the skins have boiled till they are sufficiently tender to admit of a fork being stuck into them, strain them; some of which may be boiled with the other part*; scrape clean all the pith, or inside, from them; lay them in folds, and cut them into thin slices of about an inch long. Clarify your Sugar; then throw your skins and pulp into it, stir it well, and let it boil about half an hour. If the Sugar is broken into small pieces, and boiled with the fruit, it will answer the purpose of clarifying, but it must be well skimmed when it boils.
Marmalade should be made at the end of March or the beginning of April, as Seville Oranges are then in their best state.
ORANGE MARMALADE, ANOTHER WAY.
641.* To each pound of Seville Oranges allow two pounds of Sugar, grate the oranges lightly, and slice them down with a very sharp knife as thin as possible, and straight through,—nothing must be kept out but the seeds,—clarify the sugar, put the fruit in, and boil it slowly, for at least an hour, until the chips are perfectly tender and clear, and it will jelly—a little of the grate may be put in if approved, the rest is nice for seasoning puddings.
ORANGE MARMALADE, ANOTHER RECEIPT.
642. Take equal weight of Orange and Sugar, grate the oranges lightly score them across, and take off the skins in quarters, boil the skins in a linen bag until you can pierce them easily with the head of a pin—slit open the inside of the orange, and scrape out the fine part of the pulp, along with the juice, keeping back the tough white skin and seeds. When the skins are tender, scrape out the strings, and cut them as thin as possible into chips about an inch long—clarify the sugar, and put in the chips, pulp, and juice, and boil quickly twenty minutes.

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American druggist and pharmaceutical record, Volume 35

Bitter Oranges.*
By H. H. Robins.
In the London market this fruit is known under the name of "Sour Oranges."
They are chiefly imported from Malaga, Seville and Messina. In this order they arrive. The Malagas have just now commenced, but they are very pale in color, the Sevilles reach us about January, and the Sicilians February and March. Malaga supplies the largest quantity, and Seville the smallest, but no statistics are obtainable. There is in certain quarters an impression that only this latter fruit is the official variety. This error probably arises from the Seville district being the first to put on the market bitter fruit.
I was shown this week by a firm of city brokers a catalogue of a fruit sale in the year 1776; it contained a lot of six cases of Sevilles, but no mention of any other kind.
It was customary twenty years ago to

Dark violet.
Cherry red.
Yellowish.
Intensely dark violet (methy
violet).
Faint brownish-red.
Yellowish brown.
Light brown.
Grayish-brown.
Colorless.
Dark brown.
Brownish violet.
From this it would appear that selenious acid is adapted for the detection of
speak of all bitter oranges "orange or Seville orange."
In Bentley and Trimen it is1 stated that "the fruit is imported from the South of Europe, and is known in London as the bitter orange or Seville orange.
The London Pharmacopoeia, I»57j orders peel dried in February, March and. April to be used.
The B P., 1864 and 1867, describes ripe fruit imported from the South ot
EIn°the additions to the B.P., 1874. ripe fruit, under the name of bitter orange, was introduced, of which tinct. fresh peel was then ordered for the first time. The present B.P. simply mentions the peel ot bitter oranges, and from the description given of the fruit only the fully matured is intended. ..
The bulk of the fruit imported is used by confectioners for making orange marmalade and preserved peel. Distillers are large users of both the dried and fresh peels in the manufacture of cordials, liqueurs, orange wine, etc. The drug and' mineral water trades consume comparatively a small quantity. The outer part of the pericarp is the only official portion of the fruit used, so producers of this are left with the remaining pulp and pith.
These are known by them as "dummies, though they nevertheless help to produce a special transparent kind of marmalade, much in favor with the Scotch. It is important to use peel from ripe fruit in the official perparations, for then only is the full flavor of the essential oil obtained.
The present tincture is a good .preparation, but it would be improved if it contained more of the peel.
Last season I secured representative samples of ripe fruit from each of the before mentioned sources, and the tincture* shown were made respectively from them. The specific gravities and extracts obtained by evaporating the tinctures in a water bath until they ceased to lose weight are as follow: Source of Sp. G. Grains Ext. P. c Fruit. Temp. 6o° F. per Fl. oz. Ext
Malaga 0.8808 905 2-35
Seville 0.8808 8.47 2.20
Messina 0.8811 904 2-35
It will be found that the tincture made from Messina fruit has the finest aroma, and this when diluted with 500 times its bulk of water still possesses an orange odor. This under similar conditions is not perceptible in either of the other samples. There is apparently no difference in - their relative bitterness. This property of the peel is fully developed in its unripe stage, and preparations made from such fruit are doubtless as useful for tonics as those made from the ripe, but they are certainly not so pleasant.
The percentage of extract in these tinctures is no guide to their strength.
The pith from lemons will yield more extract to 56 o/p spirit than the rind (the outer part of the pericarp), and the same is no doubt true of the orange.
Oil of orange is almost entirely volatilized at the temp, of a water bath, and any results obtained by such a method are absolutely misleading. ' I probably ought to mention a variety of bitter orange that comes in small quantities from Jaffa. This fruit is better grown and finer in every respect than that from any other district.

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