Sunday, April 10, 2011

Danish Sausage and Meat Cures - part 8

Lyons Sausage. — (German Recipe). — The Lyons Sausage (Saucisse de Lyon) was introduced into Germany in the year 1852 by Lill on his return from his tour in France. Sausage-makers throughout Germany then tried to make it, because of his success with it, but no one else succeeded. It can only be manufactured to keep by taking the greatest of care. When it is well made and well dried, it would pass for Cervelat Sausage.

It is prepared in the following manner:—

For a quantity of 40 lbs. take
25 lbs. fed pork.
10 lbs. beef from a young bullock, which should be chopped up when warm and then pounded in a mortar.
5 lbs. pork fat, cut into dice the size of peas, and then cooked for a little in boiling water.
12 oz. Salt.
2 oz. Indian cane sugar.
1 oz. pulverised saltpetre.
Mix the two lean meats, then mix the salt, saltpetre, and sugar together. Rub them into the meats, and let it stand for forty-eight hours in a cool room in summer, in a warm room in winter. Now chop up the meat fine, then mix the seasonings and add them.
They are,

2 oz. white pepper,
½ oz. white ginger,
½ oz. grated nutmeg,
two eschalots, salted and finely grated.

Before the pork fat is put amongst the rest, the spices should be well mixed up amongst the other things and a little water worked into the mass. Now put in the fat in the little dice-shaped pieces. Mix it in quickly and lightly; being careful that the pieces of fat do not lose their shape. Put the meat into medium-wide bullocks' runners, 15 inches long, pressing it in very tight. Now dry the sausages well before smoking. When they are smoked a fine red colour, put them at once into a pot, and cook for half an-hour at a heat of 203° Fahr. When the sausages are cool, there are usually some wrinkles in the skins. This can be remedied by putting the sausages in pairs into boiling water not more than fifteen seconds. After they cool again, they should be smoked in cold smoke, six to eight hours: they are then ready. They are usually sold at 1 shilling. per lb.

MACE. — The reticulated arillus which covers the shell of the nutmeg. Like nutmegs, it contains a pleasant oil, and is in great request for sweetening and flavouring various kinds of dishes.—see Nutmegs and Mace.

Maple Skewers.—There are now a large quantity of maple skewers used, they come cheaper than those made from hickory, and the wood, both in Canada and the United States of America, is plentiful. It is possible to finish maple skewers with a smoother surface, as the grain of the wood is much shorter than hickory. There are two varieties of maple skewers on the market—the knife edged and round. The former is made exclusively in Canada, while the latter is manufactured in Canada, America, and on the Continent of Europe. It is claimed for the knife-edged skewer that it enters the meat more freely than any other, but. as a matter of fact the round skewer is the favourite with users. The sizes of maple skewers follow the standard sizes made of hickory, but it is safer to use a stouter make in maple as they are liable to break more easily.

Mayence Red Sausage.—This is an easily made sausage ; it is very tasty, and in great request in the Mayence district.

Cut neck of pork with the rind on into long thin pieces. Take 10 lbs. of these strips; chop finely 3 lbs. of pigs' rind, mix the two together and season with 7 oz. Salt, ½ oz. white pepper, ½ oz. Peppermint, 1/3 oz. ground cloves, 1/3 oz. marjoram, 1/3 oz. mace. Work all well together, then add enough pigs' blood to colour the whole well. Fill into pigs' stomachs, and put at once into water boiling hard, and stir slowly for a quarter of an hour, in order that the blood does not run to one side of the sausage. They have been long enough boiled when, on trying them with a fork in the thickest part of the sausage, no blood exudes, but only quite white fat. Sometimes pigs' tongue is cut into strips. and also mixed among the rest, and even the snout and ears may be used in this manner.

Middles.—Are the intestines leading from the bung to to the rectum ; they are wider than runners, and are used for bologna, summer, etc., sausages. Generally speaking they hold at the rate of 30 lbs. meat to 1 lb. of skin.

Mince Pies.—
1 lb. apples.
1 lbs. Suet.
1 lbs.currants.
1 lbs. raisins.
1 oz. ground cinnamon.
1 ozs. Nutmeg.
1 ozs. cassia.
1 lemon.
The whole to be chopped fine and well mixed. The rind and juice of the lemon are included in the chopping.
Pastry for above :—
1 lb. flour.
6 ozs. Lard.
½ teaspoonful salt.
Place the flour in bowl and mix in salt; lightly rub the lard into the flonr and moisten with sufficient water to make a paste that will roll out. Cut into desired sizes, shape and bake as usual.

Mortadelli.—This sausage is always in request, and can be prepared and kept even in summer, and so always fetches a good price.

For 30 lbs. Take—

17 lbs. of pork, very lean and from a very strong pig,
8 lbs. lean young beef, from leg or neck,
5 lbs. fresh back fat, cut into pieces this size.

Take the lean meats and chop them up, and add 1 lb. fine salt, 1¼ oz. Indian cane sugar, ¾ oz. Saltpetre.

Put it all into a stone jar, pressed tight together, and keep for two days covered up. Then take out, chop quite fine, and season with 1¼ oz. fine white pepper, 1/3 oz fine white ginger, 1/3 oz. mace, three sticks finely grated and salted eschalots; then add 2 or 3 lbs of raw veal and chop all
together again. Now put in a dish, adding a little water, and mix well together, then knead it all for a quarter of an hour. Add the pieces of fat, and work all together for another quarter of an hour See that the fat is equally mixed through-out, then throw it from hand to hand until it is quite firm. Put into the filling machine, and see that no air gets in. See that the skins are well salted and well dried, about 12 to 15 inches long, and very narrow. Dry the sausage well in winter for forty eight hours in a room warmed to a temperature of 77° Fahr. Smoke with beech and oak sawdust into which a few juniper berries have been thrown. Let them hang till they are of a cherry-red colour, then let them simmer, not boil, for about one and three-quarters to two hours.

A sure sign of the mortadelli being ready is this: if they are taken out of the pot and the water dries off the skin at once, then they are ready ; if not, put them back in the pot. Whenever they come out of the pot, roll them up in big napkins until they are perfectly cold, when they will be
crab-red, which colour they will not lose.

Mutton Hams.—As mutton takes the salt very rapidly, great care must be exercised not to get the hams over salt; select hind legs, cut off feet. Make a pickle sufficient for requirements of salt dissolved in water to salinometer strength 65°, and to each ten gallons of this pickle, add ½ lb. Saltpetre, ½ lb. antiseptic, 1 lb. moist sugar ; immerse legs in this pickle for seven days, then take out and pack closely together on slab in cool dark place, and leave them for eight days; after which wipe over with damp cloth wrung out of hot water, and hang in cool dry place to dry, when they are ready for use.

Mutton (to Corn).—see Corn Beef, No. 2 Recipe.

Mutton Sausages.—The mutton may be either home grown or frozen. If the latter, however, care should be taken to add the sausage meal very slowly. Should a cheaper sausage than what can be made from the following recipe be wanted, all that is necessary is to increase the proportions of pressed bread and sausage meal, the seasoning being also increased pro rata.

10 lbs. mutton.
1 lb. pork.
1 lb. sausage meal.
1 lb. pressed bread.
1½ ozs. food preservative (dry antiseptic).
7½ seasoning.
2 quarts fresh sheep's blood.

The seasoning may be made up as follows:—

6 lbs. salt.
1 lb. ground white pepper.
1 lb. ground ginger.
½ savory.
½ ground coriander seeds.
1 oz. rubbed parsley.

Cut the mutton and pork into small pieces, and mix the sausage meal and bread together on a table, then put into mincing machine, adding some water at the same time. Add the other ingredients, and chop till the mixture is moderately fine. Fill into sheep casings and link in the ordinary manner. Plunge them into cold water in a copper or large pot, and gradually heat to nearly boiling point (about 200° Fahr.) Withdraw the heat and allow them to cool in the water. Take them out, wipe, and hang them up to dry.
When required for use they should be fried in a little lard. Sheep's blood should be obtained at the time the sheep is being slaughtered, and should be stirred at once. Add to every gallon—
1 oz. salt.
1 oz. food preservative.
2 gills warm water. [10 fl. Ozs. Water – English Measure for 2 gills]
Seasoning may be added to suit the tastes of different localities by substituting marjoram or sage for savory.

Neats Foot Oil is made from hoofs of oxen, sheep, and if available, goats. True neats foot oil should be the product of the hoofs of oxen only ; first immerse in cold water to wash away blood, then scald at 75° C. and remove hair, now immerse in enough boiling water to cover for fifteen minutes, when the claws can be removed, and the feet split, they are now subjected to a prolonged cooking and the liquid allowed to clarify, the fat rising to the surface is skimmed off and cleared by filtering—the product being a pale yellow oil, a good lubricant for delicate machinery.

Nutmegs and Mace.—The nutmeg tree is a native of the Moluccas, but is also grown largely in Sumatra, Penang, and the West Indies. The tree attains a height of from 20 to 30 feet, and in appearance is very like our ordinary pear tree. The fruit is pear shaped, and in colour and size resembles an apricot. As it ripens the fruit opens and displays the nutmeg in its shell, encircled by a net work of mace, so that from the same fruit these two pleasant flavouring agents are derived. Nutmegs are valued principally by their size and shape. Fine qualities should be large, heavy, firm, and round, 80 to the lb. being a popular size. Frauds are often perpetrated in depriving the nutmegs of essential oil by distillation and also in filling up worm holes with mastic, but the best way to secure the genuine article is to buy only from houses of repute. The wild nutmeg is of a longer shape than the cultivated, and the flavour is much ranker. Nutmegs and mace are chiefly employed as condiments, and are of great dietetical value. The volatile oils which they contain are used as remedial agents, and have considerable stimulating properties. These spices taken in small quantities assist digestion, dispel flatulency, strengthen the viscera, and stop dysentery.

OATMEAL.—A meal made from Oats, and at one time a very popular article of food among the peasantry of Scotland. The grain grows best in low temperatures and "Scotch Oatmeal" derives its pre-eminence solely from the fact that Scotland is specially suited for the growth of oats, and
Midlothian holds the premier position, as there, the grain seems to reach its highest state of perfection. English grain is always much more deficient in the nutritive qualities, hence the comparative superiority of the meal made from Scotch grain.

Processes in the Manufacture of Oatmeal.—The first process is to thoroughly clean the oats from foreign matter, such as peas, beans, tares, barley, and cockle seeds, this is done by putting the grain through a series of grading and cockling machines, suitable for the purpose. After the grain
is thoroughly cleaned, it is put on the kiln; this process (old style), takes fully three hours to thoroughly dry the oats, the grain being twice stirred and twice turned all by hand labour. From the kiln it goes to the shelling stone, where the husks and scree dust are removed from the kernals, the scree dust passing through the meshes of a wire covered cylinder, and the husks blown away by the ordinary fanners, while the groats pass on to the grinding stones or rolls, thence to the sieves or graders to be finished off into the different sizes or cuts to suit the trade.

The fine husks, or as they are called meal sids, were at one time used by the poorer classes in Scotland, in the preparation of a dish known as sowens, and in Wales, as succan, which was prepared by steeping the sids in water for a few days, until they fermented, when the mass was skimmed and boiled. It was then cooled down, and assumed the appearance of a pudding or blanc mange. It is still used to a small extent by country people, and is considered a most nutritious dish for dyspeptics. Oatmeal, from being the food of the poor, has now become the food of the rich, and the best markets are in the fashionable quarters of our large English cities. It is often used in the form of oatcakes, baked sometimes thin, like Passover cakes, and sometimes thick, but of course the chief way in which it is consumed is in the form of porridge. Oatmeal is a valuable food, but to be thoroughly nutritious, it must be well cooked, hence the custom in many districts of using only the rough meal or rolled oats. It is only by sufficient length of time in cooking, that the natural sweet, agreeable flavour of porridge can be obtained. When properly cooked it thickens to a much greater extent than wheaten flour. There is, however, quite a variety of other cuts, which are largely used, the finest ground of these being specially suitable for infants and invalids.

Oberland Liver Sausage.—Take a shoulder of pork and remove the bones and the rind. Boil it well with from two to four lbs. of bacon cut into dice. Then mince the shoulder with half its weight of raw liver and some onions chopped very fine. Add the dice-shaped pieces of bacon, and season with salt, pepper, and grated nutmeg, and mix in a little fat if the paste is too stiff. Stuff into ox skins and boil gently from half to three-quarters of an hour. Then throw into cold water, and keep them in it until quite stiff, when they are ready to hang up.

Onion and Liver Sausage.—
14 lbs. liver, cut, washed, and scalded.
10 lbs. boiled pigs' lights.
8 lbs. back fat cut into dice.
20 lbs. lean pork.

First mince the liver, add 5 to 6 lbs. of sliced onions, next the lights, not to be too tender, and cut into pieces like beans. All this should be fried lightly on a moderate fire, and then minced (mite fine. For spices take 1½ lbs. fine salt, 3 oz. white pepper, 1½ oz. finest marjoram, ½ oz. grated nutmeg. Mix together, and work all well together with the fat, which should be cooked slightly in hot water. After working, the mixture should be beautifully white. Put them in ox or pig skins, making them any length required. Cook them in a temperature of 207° to 210° Fahr. for about thirty minutes. After they are ready, put the sausages in cold water, and let cold water run on them constantly till they are perfectly cold. One must be very careful with this sausage to have everything perfectly clean.

Pansitose—A flaky substance made from cereals, and largely used in all kinds of sausages for binding and filling. A good binder should hold the sausage meat together in a firm, compact, congealed mass, without showing the presence of a binding substance. To obtain this result, the substance employed as a binder must have very great adhesive qualities, and at the same time be of such a nature as to most readily blend perfectly with the mass, and conform as much as possible to the appearance of the meat itself.

It is claimed for the article that the properties are such that it most readily takes up all the oil and natural juices of the meat, and the flavour of the spices, and distributes them thoroughly throughout the mass, perfectly blending all together.

Pansitose does not gum, but coagulates, therefore the meat is not toughened by the action of the blender.

Pansitose retains all the moisture in the mass, and thus prevents the evaporation of the juices and oils.

Pansitose blends the mass into a perfect consistency for stuffing, gives it an appetising appearance when cut for sale, and a crisp brown appearance when cooked. Actual comparative tests of Pansitose, potato flour, cracker dust, etc., to ascertain the exact amount of water absorbed by each, showed the following result:—

Bread meal - - - 50 per cent.
Potato flour - - 70 per cent
Rice flour - - -70 per cent
Cracker dust - - 80 per cent
Meat currie - - -95 per cent
Pansitose - - - 400 per cent

That the test should be absolutely fair, one-quarter pound of each article was taken direct from fresh stock, and cold water added to each at the same time and in equal quantities, one ounce at a time, giving sufficient opportunity for each ounce to be absorbed before adding more.

The first ounce was immediately taken up by the Pansitose and the addition was scarcely noticeable, while with the other substances it was necessary to aid absorption by The per centage of water mentioned was ascertained by continuous additions of water until each substance had
apparently absorbed all it would contain, giving the following result:—
Bread meal - - - 25 minutes.
Potato flour - - 20 minutes
Rice flour - - - 20 minutes
Cracker dust - - 15 minutes
Meat currie - - 15 minutes
Pansitose - - - 10 minutes
The water was added cold. Pansitose absorbed the water as rapidly as it was added, practically without assistance, while it was necessary to stir the other substances continually to aid absorption.

Pansitose retained all the water absorbed, while the tendency of the other substances was to settle and separate from the water after standing for a short time undisturbed, showing that they are not perfect absorbents.

Directions how to successfully use Pansitose.—
Chop the meat fine.—Good sausage can not be made unless the meat is chopped to the proper degree of fineness, because it will not take up the flavour of the spices, will not stuff easily, does not bind well, and looks bad when cut for sale. The meat must be chopped fine if you want to get the best results from Pansitose.

Do not mix it with water before adding to the sausage meat. Mix it thoroughly with the chopped meat and then add water. The amount of water that should be used depends largely on circumstances and the condition of the meat Some meat is dry and requires the addition of a large quantity of water to give it the proper degree of moisture, while other meat is naturally very juicy and will require a less amount of additional moisture.

Extensive experiments in America proved that the best results in various kinds of sausages were obtained as follows :—Practical tests showed that where sausages were made for immediate sale and consumption, from twenty to thirty per cent. of water could be added, while sausages intended for shipment, or where not intended for early use, were better if only fifteen to twenty per cent. of water was added. For long distance shipping it is not advisable to add over fifteen to eighteen per cent.

For Bologna Sausage.—Chop the meat fine, then for every one hundred pounds of chopped meat add two pounds of dry Pansitose. Mix the Pansitose thoroughly with the chopped mass and then add as much water as desired, or as much as will be absorbed readily.

For Frankfurt Sausage.—Chop the meat fine, then for every one hundred pounds of chopped meat add one and-a-half pounds of dry Pansitose. Mix the Pansitose thoroughly with the chopped mass, and then add as much water as desired, or as much as will absorb readily.

For Pork Sausage.—Chop the meat fine, then for every one hundred pounds of chopped meat add two pounds of dry Pansitose. Mix the Pansitose thoroughly with the chopped mass, and then add as much water as desired, or as much as will absorb readily.

For Blood Sausage and Budding.—Chop the meat fine, then for every one hundred pounds of chopped meat add four pounds of dry Pansitose. Mix the Pansitose thoroughly with the chopped mass, and then add as much water as desired, or as much as will absorb readily.

For Head Cheese.—Chop the meat fine, then for every one hundred pounds of chopped meat add one pound of dry Pansitose. Mix the Pansitose thoroughly with the chopped mass, and then add as much water as desired, or as much as will absorb readily.

For Liver Sausage.—Chop the meat fine, then for every one hundred pounds of chopped meat add two pounds of dry Pansitose. Water is seldom added to liver sausage, as it makes it too soft, but a small quantity can be added if desired, and the mass appears to need it.

For Hamburger Steak.—Chop the meat fine, then for every one hundred pounds of chopped meat add one pound of dry Pansitose. Mix the Pansitose thoroughly with the chopped mass, then add water to give it desired consistency, about two pints of water to one hundred pounds of meat
will be found the correct amount. While it is not customary to use a binder in Hamburger steak, yet the addition of the above proportion of Pansitose will be found to improve the taste of the steak, and hold it in a better mass for cooking as also giving it a crisp, brown appearance when cooked.